The symptoms of opisthorchiasis in adults
Opisthorchiasis — a disease from the group of trematode caused by feline Fluke (cat Fluke) is a flat worm that has a small size. At length the parasite reaches 1 — 1.5 cm, width — 0.7 cm
The symptoms of opisthorchiasis in adults are most commonly due to mechanical blockage of the liver and bile ducts and toxic effects of metabolic products of the worm.
Cat Fluke is widely distributed in Russia, Ukraine, Asia and in some European countries. Parasite larvae are more common on the coast freshwater ponds. This happens because of life cycle characteristics of helminths that before entering into the definitive host two intermediate change — freshwater mussels and fish of the carp family.
Human infection occurs when eating undercooked or raw fish. Larvae of the Fluke caught in the stomach, freed from the protective sheath and migrate to the bile ducts. Here after 2 weeks they reach sexual maturity and begin to lay eggs. Last, falling into water, ingested shellfish, and the development cycle begins again. Mature individual Fluke may exist in the host’s body for up to 20 years. Besides the person, the disease affects ferrets, cats, wolves, foxes, dogs, etc.
Symptoms of opisthorchiasis
The first 3-4 week of the disease are asymptomatic. During this time, the Fluke migrates to the place of permanent habitation, develop to Mature forms begins to lay eggs. However, even while the visible signs of the presence of the parasite is not always present. Cases of asymptomatic years of opisthorchiasis.
Irrefutable symptom of the disease is the presence in the stool of the patient eggs of the parasite. The study was conducted no earlier than 4 weeks after the presumed date of infection. Reliable results can be obtained in carrying out immunological analysis, which detects antibodies to the substances secreted by the parasite. Adults can be detected using endoscopic diagnostics.
The clinical picture of invasion of the cat Fluke nonspecific. Patients with marked rise of body temperature to subfebrile or febrile digits, dyspepsia, muscle pain and other signs of intoxication. Later there are symptoms of internal organ, due to mechanical damage and blockage of the bile ducts. In this case, developing inflammation and cysts of the pancreas, liver, ducts of the gallbladder. Can affect the lungs. Symptoms in acute opisthorchiasis varies depending on the variant of pathological process.
Signs in the acute stage
In the acute stage of opisthorchiasis the patient’s body reacts to the parasite by increasing the level of sensitization that is accompanied by the release of endogenous inflammatory factors. The result of this reaction becomes the involvement of organs and systems not directly affected by the Fluke.
There are forms of disease, such as:
- the defeat of the SDT.
These forms usually occur in patients who do not live in habitats of the cat Fluke. Residents of endemic regions, historically consume raw fish (people of the North) carry the disease in asymptomatic form.
The first signs gastroenterokoliticheskaya acute opisthorchiasis are prompted:
- disorders of digestion;
- diarrhea with mucus;
- violations of appetite;
With the development of the disease symptoms increases. An objective examination reveals the presence of ulcerations on the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines caused by an autoimmune reaction. Signs of intoxication in most cases do not exist.
The course gastroenterokoliticheskaya form of Fluke infestation may reach 1-2 months. Usually after that the disease becomes chronic. Pronounced symptoms in this case disappears, being replaced by blurred and unclear signs.
Hepatocholangiocarcinoma option flow outwardly manifested in the form of cholecystitis and hepatitis, biliary dyskinesia.
Patients note the following signs:
- girdle pains;
- pain in the right hypochondrium;
- enlargement of the liver;
The symptoms of opisthorchiasis in humans in the skin manifested in the form of obstructive jaundice. While the yellow hue becoming not only the skin but the sclera of the patient’s eye.
Signs of intoxication in hepatocholangiocarcinoma for present. In patients with marked headache, pain in muscles and joints, increased body temperature, a significant decrease disability, nervousness, rejection of food. All this combined and «liver» symptoms often becomes the reason for the statement is not quite true of the diagnosis of cholecystitis.
Tipofday option flow is characterized by severe intoxication.
The patient noted:
- hyperthermia to 39°C-40°C;
- pain in the muscles;
- pain in the joints;
At the height of the temperature rise possible convulsions, respiratory failure, delirium and hallucinations. The patient may be up to 2-3 weeks. Some relief is possible to achieve with the help of an active antipyretic and detoxifying therapy. Antibiotics ineffective.
The defeat of the respiratory tract
Parasites in the bile ducts, in addition to violations of the outflow of bile, may provoke the development of bronchopulmonary syndrome.
The symptoms indicating the presence of inflammation in the respiratory system:
- redness of the mucous membranes;
- the grain of the throat;
- infiltration of eosinophils of lung sections;
- asthmatic bronchitis;
- exudative pleurisy.
Respiratory form is the most common. Its share in the total number of cases of acute opisthorchiasis reaches 80%.
The symptoms of chronic opisthorchiasis
A chronic form of opisthorchosis in inhabitants of endemic areas occurs almost asymptomatic for 40-50 years or more. This is due to the typical immune suppressive mechanism type. Conducted research (N.N. Ozernovskaya, USSR, 1968) allow to speak about presence of two points of maximum severity of illness in 10 and 60 years. The complete absence of even minimal symptoms noted in the age of 20-25 years.
People who are not permanent residents of the habitats Fluke, chronic opisthorchiasis is manifested mainly in the form of a pathology of the liver and pancreas.
Patients complain of:
- nagging pain in right side, not associated with meals;
- pain in right shoulder blade;
- constant feeling of heaviness.
Typically, other signs of illness does not occur.
There is another variant of chronic opisthorchiasis — gastroduodenopathies. Thus in patients with gastroduodenitis develops with relevant clinical manifestations. May periodically moderate jaundice. Long flowing inflammatory process sets the stage for the mutation of cells of the mucosa, which suggests a carcinogenic effect gastroduodenoscope of opisthorchiasis.
The symptoms of opisthorchiasis in children
Opisthorchiasis in children often occurs latent (hidden), even the inhabitants of the regions where cat’s Fluke not inhabit. Sometimes the kids have long noted low-grade fever, but it is rarely associated with the presence of worms. Sick children lag behind in development, not gather additionally in weight, prone to whining and tantrums, restless.
In addition to the above, the Fluke infestation leads to increased sensitization of the organism, increase the frequency of allergic reactions. In children, often develops hepatitis and cirrhosis, the appearance of which due to affiliated pathogenic microflora.
The number of cases the diagnosis of opisthorchiasis in children under the age of 7-8 years minimum. This is due to the lack in their diet of poorly cooked fish. With the exception of the kids living in the far North. Here the percentage of infected children reaches 60-70%.