Opisthorchiasis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment scheme
Diseases associated with parasitic organisms within the person, is not uncommon. One of the most common parasitic diseases is opisthorchiasis – the symptoms of this disease, it is recommended to know everyone, in the event of the occurrence of parasites in the shortest possible time to see a doctor. The disease can lead to quite serious complications and consequences, so it is important proper diagnosis and prompt initiation of adequate treatment of the disease. It is important to know what opisthorchiasis and how to cure it in case of infection.
Opisthorchiasis – what is it? This disease is group of helminthiasis caused by flat worms Opisthorchis felineus, which hit the pancreas and liver. For this helminthiasis in humans is characterized by frequent and repeated deterioration, as well as long duration.
Ways of infection
The parasites causing this disease belong to the class of trematodes, they are called cat or Siberian Fluke. They have small enough sizes reach a length of 20 mm and a width of about 1-2 mm. Despite its small size, helminths, opistorchis lead to severe symptoms and serious consequences without proper and timely treatment.
The causative agent of opisthorchiasis in humans is quite a long life cycle and has two intermediate hosts. Eggs opisthorchis in a variety of ways fall into the fresh water reservoir, where they ingest shellfish – they are the first obligatory intermediate host. In the body of the mollusk larvae turn into cercaria, after which they again fall into the water, where they are meeting with the second intermediate host – fish. Opistorhisov embedded in the muscle of the fish through the skin. Infected fish family Cyprinidae – carp, bream, gudgeon, bullhead and others. Eating poorly thermally processed or of poor quality salt infected fish, infected with this helminth can as individuals, and any carnivorous animals – cats, dogs and so on.
Thus, the carnivorous opisthorchiasis develops exclusively from eating fish. The disease is not transmitted from human or animal.
To understand how to determine opisthorchiasis, it is important to know in which regions it is most prevalent, as when collecting medical history is taken into account the place of residence or visits the patient where it could cause the contamination. On the territory of Russia and CIS countries allocate large pockets with a large number of infected. Opisthorchiasis in adults has a greater prevalence in areas of the rivers Irtysh, Ob, don, Kama and others. For residents of these areas recommended permanent prevention of opisthorchiasis.
To understand what opisthorchiasis, we need to know how it develops and progresses this disease in humans. The incubation period of this bot lasts an average 21 days.
After eating contaminated fish larvae opisthorchis enter the stomach and then the intestines, where to lose your shell and the bile ducts pass to the liver and pancreas. In humans with a diagnosis of opisthorchiasis parasite that causes the disease can live for 25 years, causing various symptoms and serious consequences for the patient.
Opisthorchiasis in the human body can take two forms:
- Sharp. This form of the disease lasts from several days to 10 weeks.
- Chronic. The duration of this form of the disease – from a couple of months to several years. However, if there is no adequate treatment, the symptoms of opisthorchiasis in adults can occur throughout life.
Regardless of the stage of the disease opisthorchiasis requires treatment in order to avoid possible complications.
For opisthorchiasis in adults for a long period of time, the worms may not manifest itself, and the disease is asymptomatic. In this case, it detected a parasite in the body by accident, when conducting surveys or during exacerbation of the disease.
Opisthorchiasis is manifested in different ways: the symptoms of the disease depend on its duration and severity. So, the acute course of the disease is manifested by such signs:
- A significant increase in body temperature to 38-40 degrees;
- Pain in muscles and joints;
- Sharp pain in the right hypochondrium;
- Disruption of the normal functioning of the digestive system – nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and so on;
- Allergic reactions, including often hives, itching;
- Reduced appetite and, consequently, weight loss.
Many of the symptoms of the acute form of the disease caused by General intoxication of the organism. Acute opisthorchiasis has features that are similar to many infectious diseases, so it can be difficult to diagnose.
With chronic opisthorchiasis of the liver manifested by the following symptoms (they may be present constantly, and manifest during exacerbations):
- Pain or significant discomfort in the right upper quadrant;
- Digestion – poor appetite, nausea, diarrhea, feeling of heaviness after eating;
- Headaches and dizziness;
- General weakness, fatigue, drowsiness and mood swings;
- The increase in size of the liver.
With the defeat of the pancreas may develop pancreatitis with characteristic symptoms.
Depending on the severity of the occurrence of symptoms of the disease may be brighter or weaker. This files most often manifest several symptoms, when detected, are recommended to consult a doctor who knows exactly how to cure opisthorchiasis. He will diagnose and prescribe drug therapy. This will help minimize the different consequences of opisthorchiasis.
Complications of the disease
If there are signs of opisthorchiasis, it is important to as soon as possible to start to treat opisthorchiasis in adults, as you may develop various serious complications. What is the danger of opisthorchiasis? When late begun treatment develop such consequences as:
- Abscess and cirrhosis of the liver;
- Liver failure;
- Chronic hepatitis;
- Cancer of the liver and pancreas;
- Damage to the nervous system.
To avoid the disease and its complications, regular preventive maintenance of opisthorchiasis, consisting in the rejection of the use of raw and thermally not processed fish. You should also give up fish poor Ambassador when preparing this fish it is recommended to use less than 1.2 g of salt per liter of water and proclivity it for at least 10 days.
Diagnosis and treatment
Before how to treat opisthorchiasis, it is necessary to conduct a competent diagnosis. The early stage of the disease is difficult to diagnose, as the eggs of the parasite are determined in the feces and bile only after 4-6 weeks after infection. Therefore, the disease of acute opisthorchiasis is usually diagnosed only by history.
To identify opisthorchiasis diagnostics includes methods such as:
- Examination of the patient. Revealed the presence of jaundice of the skin, allergic reactions, and on palpation determined enlarged liver, her tenderness.
- A blood test. Determines the total protein, leukocytosis and eosinophilia, and altered hepatic enzymes.
- ELISA blood test for the detection of antibodies to opisthorchis.
- Stool tests for detection of eggs of the helminth.
- Analysis of bile. Also helps to determine the presence of helminth eggs.
- The diagnostic study. Use of ultrasound and CT to identify changes in the size of the liver and gallbladder.
- Duodenal intubation. Allows you to see the worms themselves, but also to hold the fence contents, which are detected parasites. This study is most informative when the disease.
Competent diagnostics of opisthorchiasis allows time to detect the disease and begin appropriate therapy. How to bring the disease opisthorchiasis? The main rule – no-medication and strict compliance with doctor’s recommendations.
How to get rid of opisthorchiasis, prompt parasitologist, or infectious disease. These professionals need to assign a treatment against helminth infections of this kind. Treatment of opisthorchiasis involves three successive stages: preparatory, specific therapy and rehabilitation.
In the first stage the patient prescribed by the doctor anti-histamine and choleretic drugs, medicines to reduce intoxication, according to testimony, can be applied antibiotics, digestive enzymes and probiotics. The second stage applies biltricid is the only means that are considered really effective against worms of this species.
Treatment of opisthorchiasis in adults, the rehabilitation phase is taking hepatoprotectors, choleretic use of tools and herbs and antispasmodics as needed.
All drugs are appointed professionals depending on the individual patient, so the choice of medication and its dosage must be carried out exclusively by the doctor.
Also during the treatment the diet with a strict limitation of fat consumed. Diet can be extended and after the treatment according to indications.
Is it possible to cure opisthorchiasis with other methods? Doctors say that the use of this regimen is the most effective way to treat the disease.
It is important to understand that there are differences in how treatable the disease opisthorchiasis adults and children, so it is impossible to apply the same scheme to treat different patients. Also in the appointment of treatment take into account the individual characteristics of the organism and comorbidities.
This kind of helminthiasis is very common, but no less dangerous. Opisthorchiasis causes a variety of symptoms, and the treatment requires strict and lengthy. It should comply with all recommendations of the doctor and in any case not to engage in therapy: complications of the disease can haunt the patient throughout life. To prevent diagnosis «opisthorchiasis» should be prevention on a regular basis.