Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: treatment

A dangerous cancerous disease of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in most cases, affects the male population, while women suffer this illness at times less. The disease affects people in middle age, the doctors isolated the category of people who are prone to the formation of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. What causes pathology which symptoms develop at different stages, and what treatment is subject to confirmation of the diagnosis?

General information

Causes

Urothelial bladder cancer occurs when the confluence of a large number of circumstances, but doctors have identified the category of people most at risk of developing cancer:

  • With regular mechanical damage of the bladder, resulting in its walls there is chronic inflammation, which becomes the primary focus of the development of cancer cells. To monitor the health shown people, which is a catheter or stoma bladder. It is important to follow the doctor’s recommendations and monitor the state of the mucous membranes of the body.
  • Another factor that provokes the development of carcinoma of majevica, is considered to be bad habits. These include Smoking, use of narcotic drugs, abuse of drugs, alcoholism.
  • If the family had cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, so there is a high risk of pathology and himself.
  • The disease develops in people who have not recovered to inflammation of the bladder. As a result, the disease became chronic, which is more insidious and dangerous.

Classification

According to the degree of differentiation of bladder cancer separated as:

  • urothelial carcinoma of majevica g1 — high-grade differentiated;
  • urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, g2 — moderately differentiated;
  • urothelial carcinoma of majevica g3 — poorly differentiated.

In addition to this classification, there are following types of urothelial cancer of the bladder:

  • when urothelial papilloma low degree of degeneration in malignant tumors;
  • the papillary form, which is characterized by benign manifestations, but circumstances sometimes develops into a malignant tumor;
  • papillary carcinoma, which in most cases of primary benign tumor, but the high risk of degeneration into cancer;
  • papillary carcinoma, in which a high probability of bladder cancer.
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The stage of the disease

Depending on how affected on cancer cells disease klassificeret on the 1st stage at which the tumor growth affect the upper layer of the epithelium, while not there is a loss of muscle tissue, no metastases, lymph glands were normal. At this stage of urothelial carcinoma respond well to treatment, but the problem is that at the 1st stage the disease is asymptomatic, utrustet timely diagnosis and treatment.

2-stage defeat exposed muscle tissue, but metastasis to adjacent organs yet, perhaps affected lymph nodes. The main symptom indicating the development of pathology, is considered to be hematuria, which at first worried man periodically, and then takes regular. With adequate treatment, the disease is impossible to overcome, but the operation is more complicated than in the treatment of 1st stage

On the 3rd stage of the lesion on the whole affected lymph nodes, metastasis spread to adjacent organs. The prognosis for a favorable recovery is lower, but it all depends on tactics of treatment and resources of the patient. Treatment requires complete surgical removal of the bladder and organs affected by metastases. In addition, in parallel chemotherapy and radiolucent.

On the 4th stage, the tumor is inoperable metastases affect the entire bladder completely amazed by the lymph nodes and adjacent organs: liver, kidneys, pancreas, spleen, intestines. Operation in most cases will not bring any effect, so the patient might chemotherapy and blast radiation, which will help slow down tumor growth, thereby extending the life of a person. The doctor prescribes a course of painkillers and needed antidepressants.

Diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

Diagnostic procedures in the detection of urothelial bladder cancer based on ultrasound-research, sistolicheskogo urine analysis, conduct a cystoscopy, MRI and CT scan. When ultrasound detects a tumor, how big it is, how it hit the lymph nodes and adjacent organs, such as liver, kidneys, intestines. When cystological study focuses on the sediment of urine, if cancer is found in cancer tissue. The doctor will advise the patient to donate blood for biochemical analysis in Oncology will indicate increased level of specific markers.

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Zitostaticescoe the study is carried out to confirm the diagnosis, the physician can determine the nature of the tumor, its localization. If there is a need, the doctor is in the process of research takes a sample for histological analysis. To determine the degree of metastasis and dissemination of cancer cells throughout the body, appointed by an MRI or CT scan of the abdomen. Through such diagnostic methods can determine whether there are cancer cells in the tissues of the kidneys, liver, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder. It is important to select the correct treatment tactics.

Cancer treatment

If cancerous tumor identified at the initial stage, shown for minimally invasive resection of the bladder, which removes the tumor tissue and the layer of the affected epithelium. This operation is called a transurethral resection or TUR. However, within 4-6 years after this surgical treatment the risk of relapse is very high. In addition to the resection parallel to prescribe a course of chemotherapy and radiology radiation. It is often shown that surgical intervention as electrovaporization. The disease is less likely to recur and the results are more encouraging.

Cystectomy is indicated for moderately differentiated g2 poorly differentiated g3 bladder cancer. Thus will be removed the entire bladder, prostate in men and the front wall of the vagina with the appendages in women. If the cancer has metastasized to bone tissue, kidney, liver and other organs, surgery will not bring results, so a person is a palliative treatment aimed at relief of pain symptoms, maintaining moral health. And if you want you can take a course of chemotherapy, which will help to block the growth of tumors and relieve the patient’s condition.

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The prognosis for recovery

Forecasts of urothelial carcinomas is primarily dependent on how promptly a person asked for medical assistance. The risk of cancer in that in the initial stages, when there are all chances to defeat the disease, the disease does not manifest itself, the person feels good, not worried about pain, discomfort and other problems. If you hold the removal of the tumor, the chance of survival is high. If the patient is addressed in the later stages, the treatment success will depend on the selected course of therapy and from what he health.

It is important to always monitor the health, in time to undergo routine medical examination and in the event of suspicious symptoms to seek qualified help and not to self-medicate.

Preventive measures

Since bladder cancer arises from the abuse of bad habits, a man likely to develop illness or past treatment, first and foremost, you need to start to stay healthy, follow the rules of healthy lifestyle, to establish food, not to drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes and to quit other habits that negatively affect health status. If a person is dominated by a sedentary lifestyle, you need to pay attention to physical exercises that are beneficial to health, promote normal blood flow to internal organs, preventing the development of stagnation processes. All these preventive measures will help to prevent urothelial carcinoma and will protect a person from dangerous consequences.