Urinary tract infection in children: treatment, symptoms, causes
One of the most common causes of childhood illnesses include urinary tract infection in children. This is most seen in children under the age of years who need full care. When infection in patients symptoms do not always manifest, but often have serious complications, which are difficult to cure. How to determine the presence of disease?
General information about the disease
Infectious inflammation of the urinary tract in children often occurs without symptoms and is detected during a comprehensive examination of the patient. In diseases of the urinary system, the body quickly responds to infectious effects, resulting in the child’s inflamed kidney. For examination for infection, appoint the General analysis of urine, ultrasonography. After researching baby prescribe medical complex, which includes antibiotics and uroantiseptiki, backed up by traditional medicine.
The reasons for the development of pathology
Inflammation of the urinary tract in childhood occurs due to various harmful microorganisms. What the infection will spread in the body, it depends on what sex the baby is, how old and in what condition his immune system. To the most common microbes include enterobacteria, among which are more commonly found Escherichia coli. Other factors of occurrence of diseases of the urinary system can be:
- urodynamic disorders (mochetochniki reflux, faults in the functioning of the bladder);
- reduced efficiency of the immune system (because of the development of small quantity of antibodies lowered immune system cells);
- violated the metabolism;
- changes in blood vessels in the renal tissues;
- abnormal anatomy of the reproductive system, congenital anomalies;
- the spread of infection in the sexual organs or intestinal environment.
- the child has worms;
- surgical intervention in the area of the urinary tract.
According to statistics, the disease is more common in patients under one year, however, depending on age and gender, various indicators of morbidity. Most often, the pathology is diagnosed in girls due to the fact that they have a urinary channel is close to the vagina and urethra of females is much shorter than in men. Girls often suffer at the age of 3-4 years. Urogenital infection in infants is more typical for a boy. The inflammation of the urinary tract in the child occurs due to abnormal development of the genital organs. In addition, the reason for which there is urinary tract infection in infants, can be improper care.
Factors contributing to the development of infectious inflammation
There are many predisposing factors, which covers a bladder infection in children. Among them there is a disruption of normal urinary outflow obstructive uropathy, reflux of the bladder and urinary tract. Pathology develops because of the deterioration of the immune system, impaired metabolic processes, and is also seen in patients with diabetes, renal calcification. Also infection can get into the urinary path because of medical interventions, after which the harmful microorganisms are able to actively proliferate.
Classification of harmful microorganisms
As the prevalence of inflammation are microorganisms that struck the upper sections of the excretory system (kidneys, ureters) and lower parts (bladder, urethra). Thus, with the defeat of the upper divisions is diagnosed pyelitis, pyelonephritis, while lower infection — cystitis, urethritis. Depending on the period of the appearance of the disease is in the first episode or recurrent. The disease is sometimes reinforced by a secondary infection. Looking at which symptoms appear in a patient, isolated, light, and heavy infection (complications, poorly tolerated).
Symptoms of urinary tract infections in children
Symptoms depending on the age of the child patient. In children under the age of 2 years, there is fever, retching, diarrhea, changes hue of the urethra, pale skin. Newborns have no appetite, they have a lot of fuss, cry and become irritable. In patients 2 years of age and above during urination the pain begins, the urine has a dark color, sore lower abdomen and body temperature rises to 38 degrees and above.
Features manifestations in infants
In infants infectious inflammation of the urinary system is manifested to a greater degree without the signs: temperature practically does not increase, the appearance of intoxication, grey skin, apathetic condition, you may experience anorexia. If the patient has acute bacterial cystitis, it raises the temperature above 38 degrees.
Laboratory methods of examination
Bacteriological method of research of urine
Bacteriological method is Central to the examination of the patient for the presence of urinary infections. Such a study allows to determine the type of the malicious microorganism and its sensitivity to antibiotics. To have accurate results, you must follow the rules of the survey, as well as to have sterile instruments.
Total urinary analysis
Another reliable way study of the patient, is urine analysis. It can be used to determine in urine the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes and protein level. In the case of increased values indicate the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the organs of the urinary system, including kidney and in the bladder.
Common method of blood examination
To determine the presence of inflammatory processes in the urinary system, carry out the General analysis of blood. Using this method you can identify an increased leukocyte level, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and changes in leukocyte formula. It often happens that the inflammatory processes are characterized by the development of pyelonephritis. For urethritis or cystitis is the inflammation less common.
Instrumental methods of diagnosis
Ultrasound as a method examination
Ultrasound permitted regardless of age. With the help of ultrasonic method of inspection fails to see the real size and condition of the kidney to determine stones in the urinary system, to assess the volume of bladder and the presence of inflammatory processes. Ultrasound gives the ability to identify abnormal development of organs in the early stages.
Holding mictional cystography
Using mictional cystography, which is a radiological method, the doctor manages to follow the passage of the liquid during the act of urination. This method of survey used for the study of patients with suspected vesicoureteral reflux, and for relieving initial segments of channel voiding in boys.
Dynamic radioisotope neprezentare
Diseases of the urinary system in children identify when dynamic radioisotope neprezentare. It injected a special drug, which contains radioactive isotopes. Using them can determine the selection of the drug from the kidneys, and then the movement of the means for the urinary ways along with urine.
Conduct excretory urography
Another radiological method, which is used for additional examination of the patient to confirm the diagnosis. The patient is injected with special dye, and then do a series of x-rays, between which respected a certain period of time. The method detects an anomalous development of the organs.
Cystoscopy is considered the endoscopic method of examination of the patient, wherein the voiding channel introduced optical device. Thanks to this method, the expert cannot assess the condition of the bladder wall, the presence in the body inflammatory processes. The study use pain as a method different painful symptoms.
Treatment of the genitourinary system includes the use of antibiotics, resulting in genitourinary infection disappears. Children’s antibiotics are selected for each child individually. For children over the age of 2 months, the drugs are prescribed in pill form. A course of antibiotics ranges from 5 days to 2 weeks, depending on the condition of the patient.
Treatment of folk remedies
Treatment of infections of the genitourinary system folk remedies involves the observance of special diet menus. It is not recommended to give the kids salty, fatty foods. You want to reduce the amount of fluid intake. Consumption of food should be protein and vegetable, which do not overload the organs. It is recommended to eat dairy products.
Prevention and prognosis
If time does not treat the signs of urinary tract infection, the patient starts complications, among them renal failure, sepsis, hypertension. This treatment of signs is held under the supervision of a doctor. To prevent the appearance of disease recommended to stick to the rules of personal hygiene, to cure diseases of the genitourinary system.