Urinary catheter for women and men: care, like betting, types
To fight against urological diseases use of a urinary catheter system of rubber tubes which is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to control the amount of urine or diagnostic composition. He also intended for the act of urination, if a person observed dysfunction of majevica.
Diseases such as cancer of the genitourinary system, prostate adenoma, urinary retention and renal diseases involve problems with the urine. One of the methods of treatment is the introduction of a catheter into the urethra. This is done to drain the bladder and facilitate urination. The conductor may be a latex or rubber (soft) or plastic, metal (hard). It looks like a straight or curved tube with holes on both ends. Soft have a slanting cut, and hard — stick, bill and rod.
Types and sizes
Classification is made depending on the material from which the device is manufactured, and the residence time in the body. It takes into account the number of channels and bodies that enter the device. The length of the tube depends on the physiological characteristics of the organism. Female catheters are usually shorter. The optimal length for women is 12-15 cm, for men — about 30 cm
Production material are distinguished:
- elastic (rubber);
- soft (latex or silicone);
- a hard (plastic or metal).
Depending on the duration of stay in the ureter:
- constant (introduced for the long term);
Considering on the introduction of distinguish:
- tools for the pelvis of the kidney;
- stents for the urinary bladder.
By location are:
- internal (located entirely inside the body);
- external (one end come out).
The number of channels to distinguish the options:
- single channel;
- channel of the stent.
The most common types
For catheterization, use different types of catheters. Their choice depends on the function they will perform. Important is the quality of the device, as in some cases it causes irritation or allergic reactions. Including the above factors, the most common are:
- The urethral Foley catheter. It is considered a permanent urinary catheter. Has a blind end and two holes. At the end there is a rubber tank, which summed up the thin channel. Used for washing bladder, removal of clots of blood or urine.
- Device catheterization of Nelaton. Straight, elastic, with rounded end. Has a smaller diameter than Foley. Not used as a constant. Is inserted into the urinary tract for drainage.
- The Stent Timanna. Has one channel for drainage and 2 holes near the tip. Used in diseases of the prostate.
- Fixture Pizzera. Rubber wire, having 2-3 holes and Cup-shaped tip. Establish as a permanent drainage of the kidneys fail their primary function.
- Melukote identical to the sample Pizzera.
- The stent Poisson — rubber smooth filament with three holes and spiral edge. Injected with a metal probe, which then must be removed. Rarely used for the treatment of the genitourinary system.
Each of the examples of devices for catheterization has advantages and disadvantages in application. If the introduction of the catheter provides for long, the best disposable catheter Nelaton. The Foley bench is more suitable not only for urine excretion, but also to introduce drugs. If the patient has an impossible act of urination, the most suitable option Pizzera.
To put a catheter in the urethra need to follow some rules. First, installing the catheter must be sterile. To do this, to avoid sepsis, the tool and genitals treated with antiseptic disinfectant drugs. Second, patients who have undergone the procedure claim that it hurts. To relieve such feelings apply gel «Linkler» or other permitted painkillers.
The introduction of a catheter for urine men much harder than women. The problem is that men in the urethra inherent contractions and it is longer than the female.
Catheterization in males
The technique of inserting a catheter men difficult. During the procedure the patient should lie on your back, bending your knees, and relax. A doctor treats the reproductive organs and apparatus antiseptic, and slowly begins to enter the tool. In this case the penis must be in a position perpendicular to the body. A signal that the manipulation is correct, is the appearance in the catheter fluid.
Catheter the bladder in men has a length of 20-30 cm with a narrow diameter. This is due to the physiological characteristics of the organism. So you need to use the appropriate instance. At the end of the procedure, the entry site of the adaptor is disinfected with antiseptic, and the bag is attached to the inner side of the thigh. If the patient is bedridden to bed.
Catheterization in women
Insert urethral catheter women just. The patient lies on her back, legs spread, knees bent. The labia and the tool is treated with disinfectants. Introduce urethral catheter 4-6 cm into the urinary tract, lowering the second edge in a special tank. It is attached to the thigh vintovoi tight bandage. During the manipulation of blood can appear, but it is safe. If the doctor did everything correctly, krovotechenie minor and is not repeated.
Suprapubic catheter (or cystostomy) is inserted for prolonged drainage. It is put through an incision in the pubic portion of the abdomen under local or General anesthesia. In this case, the stomach is a bag for collecting urine derived. Catheter of this type is required:
- women after gynecological operations;
- if the patient has cancer of the urethra;
- with disabilities who are not able to go with urethral device;
- if a person needs not only to katterbach the ureter, but also to preserve sexual activity.
Urethral or suprapubic catheter
And cystostomy, and urethral catheters have advantages and negative aspects. When installing urethral variant can damage the cervix and the bladder wall. Suprapubic less traumatic for the person. Cystostomy easier to handle, and of the probability of occurrence of inflammatory infections less. Moreover, an incision in the abdomen rather heals and brings less discomfort than the tube in the genitals. In addition, if the device is clogged, the urine drains through it, infecting the genitals. And if such a problem occurs in the suprapubic sample of urine output in any case.
The suprapubic catheter has advantages in diameter. It is much wider than in the urethral. But cystostomy has some negative aspects. First, it is often blocked, so how to install it only allowed for a long time. Second, the side effects of it stay in the body are: urinary retention, spasm or stones. Thirdly, patients suffering from excess weight, it is difficult to put a suprapubic catheter.
Care of permanent catheter
If the catheter is in the bladder is a long time for him to need special care. The main thing is to keep the injection site clean. This requires emptying after each washing the genitalia with soap and water. Every day is important to handle the bag with soap and water. If the device is clogged, you should immediately remove it. The removal and replacement shall be made only by the physician in the operating room.
Each procedure for the care of a stent should be performed under sterile conditions and sterilized equipment. The tube of the catheter needs to be changed every 7 days and periodically move it in the ureter. It is important not to forget to wash out the bladder by the introduction of antiseptic and disinfectants. A mandatory condition of setting of urinal is considered to be the location is always below the level of the genitals.
To care for the bag easy. It must first be extracted from the system, then rinse. The last manipulation is done by soaking the tank in a solution of water and vinegar (2 to 3 m). Then, the bag is dried and attached back. If the patient is not instructed on the rules of the process, removal of the bag holds only the medic.
If the patient walks with a catheter for a long time it can leak. The container is not filled properly. And in the case of such trouble, it is appropriate to remove the catheter and disinfect the place of its location. The flow occurs for the following reasons:
- the wrong lighting device;
- a small volume of the tank;
- the clog;
- the beginning of the infectious processes of urinogenital system;
Replacement of urinary catheter
To replace, then what to put in the catheter. If the patient wears a catheter for a long time and knows the rules of use, the replacement allowed to at home. To prevent negative consequences, it is recommended to disinfect hands and tools. It is important that the components of the device were stored in the refrigerator in a closed container. Before the procedure, clean the old catheter from the fluid using a large syringe.
The patient must be in a relaxed state, but most focusing on the process. If during the procedure there was a feeling that the tube is held rigidly, it is impossible to continue. In this case it is important to remove the device and seek specialist. The treatment may be prolonged bleeding after the procedure, discomfort in the area of the urethra, no urine in a special bag or bloating.
Removal of device
Remove the catheter using several techniques. Pipe from the tank is cut off. Thereafter, the fluid flows, the adapter and gently pulling. The main tube detaches from the tank. It then set a large syringe, with which sucked urine. It is important to keep track of how much fluid came out of the system that in any case not to leave even a small amount in the body. After cleansing the device is carefully removed.
After that, be sure to disinfect the external organs of the urogenital system. The patient should not move a lot after the removal of the device. Definitely need to track sensation in the first minutes after the seizure. If there is no urge to mocheispuskanie, in the urine or blood swells the stomach, it is important to appeal to the urologist to determine the causes.