Urethritis: treatment, symptoms, causes
Inflammation of the urethra occurs equally often in men and women. But in men, symptoms of urethritis occur more rapidly at the time, like women they can be completely absent. The inflammatory process is rarely «comes» one usually complicated by infectious pathologies of the urinary organs.
Under the pathology involve the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra and its glands. The nature of the inflammatory process, most often infectious, less traumatic (installation of a catheter). The disease is not life threatening person, but is manifested by symptoms that bring discomfort. Inflammation of the urethra is dangerous for health, especially women.
How do you get urethritis? The main cause of infection is sexual contact. But it is dangerous and hypothermia, kidney stone disease, radiation factors. Not always the first symptoms are felt earlier in this insidious disease. People are not aware of the presence of the disease and continued to infect their partner.
Possible consequences: inflammation of the urethra may reach the bladder, the prostate, the pelvic organs. In women, inflammation of the bladder, a violation of the microflora threat to the development of infertility.
Classification of the disease
The disease is quite diverse and divided into several types. Inflammation of the external opening of the urethra occurs under the influence of several reasons. Basing on them, there is a certain classification of urethritis. The correctness of the definition of pathology depends on the manifestation of symptoms and selection of the necessary treatment.
Causes of urethritis
- Infectious. There are several types of this group. Each species included in the category infectious urethritis caused his pathogen. There are mixed kinds that provoke several types of infections at once. Types of urethritis are divided into:
- Specific urethritis. His appearance will cause of sexually transmitted infections: Trichomonas, gonorrhea, chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and others. Fungi of the genus Candida (thrush) causes Candida type. Urological problems during menopause cause atrophic type of the disease. Each individual form of the disease has a characteristic only to him characteristics, requires individual therapy.
- Nonspecific. This form cause non-specific pathogens: Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus. In a healthy organism, the presence of such a pathogen will not bring harm to human. But after infection with a weakened immune system such flora causes complications (strep).
Non-infectious. Are not as common as infectious and provoked medical actions that are associated with the urethra (radiation, toxic, stagnant). Disturbances in the pelvic organs, malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary system, trauma can also cause non-infectious urethritis (post-traumatic urethritis). In women inflammation of the urethra happens before menstruation ( premenstrual urethritis). The most common diseases are:
- allergic urethritis;
- traumatic urethritis;
- congestive urethritis.
In the course of the disease and the severity
According to course clinical picture, the disease is subdivided:
- acute (during this period you need to start treatment, the dangerous transition of the disease to the second stage);
- torpid urethritis.
- Chronic (inflammatory process persists for more than 2 months). In the severity of chronic urethritis runs :
- with the aggravation;
- without exacerbation.
Other common classification
The above diseases can be supplemented with two types of pathology:
- The primary form. It is an independent disease, inflamed urethra directly.
- The secondary form. This complication appeared as a result of the disease. It is dangerous, because the infection enters the urethra, usually from the vagina, prostate or bladder.
Given the above information, processes, causing inflammation of the urethra can be divided:
- STD. In turn, venereal urethritis through sexual way of infection include gonococcal and degeneracy.
To identify the bladder infection symptoms easy. All the usual inflammatory signs like fever with urethritis, deterioration of health, may be missing. One person carries the inflammation in the urethra easily, and the other the same disease harder. The inflammatory process in the urethra can manifest itself immediately after infection. The incubation period from infection to onset of symptoms can last from couple hours to several months.
The symptoms of infectious forms
The main signs that appear when inflammation of the urethra, the following:
- And burning pain during urine secretion.
- Nonspecific separation of the urinary channel with unpleasant smell (the number and appearance of the discharge depends on the type of infection).
- Repeated urination.
- The bladder is not completely emptied.
- The urine in urethritis alters physical properties such as transparency and colour (possibly blood in the urine).
- Changing form, color of the urethra.
- In men with erection there are painful sensations.
- In urinalysis, a high level of white blood cells.
Symptoms of non-communicable forms
Signs of nonspecific inflammation of the urethra similar. However, in the first stage there is no selection. Then join purulent discharge green. They are accompanied by an unpleasant odor. Reasons for inflammation of the channel, affect the manifestation of symptoms. In some people they may not be available or display of such minor that he was not paying attention.
With any form of inflammatory process in the urethra the initial diagnosis can be made on the description of patients clinical picture. The most important diagnostics. This allows you to define urethritis, and then to take the necessary measures to eliminate the causes. Without laboratory testing it is impossible to determine the specific form and choose the necessary treatment. The complaint of the man on the burning, the appearance of cramps when going to the bathroom indicate inflammation, but the doctor conducts differentiation of the first symptoms from other diseases. In addition to the data of clinical examination, standard diagnostics of urethritis includes laboratory data. To do this, follow the following methods:
- Smear from the urethra. Microscopic analysis can detect Trichomonas, fungi.
- Analysis of small portions of the first urine (urine with blood). Pay attention on white blood cells in a healthy organism there must be no more than 5 in field of vision.
- PCR. This analysis, as polymer chain reaction, is used, if the bacteria were not identified.
- To assess the physical condition of the urinary tract is cytoscopy. Using a special device, which is inserted in the urethra are well visible on its wall and the degree of scarring.
- Ultrasound is performed to obtain a complete picture of the appearance of organs of the urogenital system.
- Bacteriological analysis of urine to determine the originator and its response to drugs.
Many people have the question: what kind of doctor treats inflammation who to contact? Since we are talking about inflammation of the urethra, which accompany uncomfortable symptoms that are not associated with genital infection, you need to be recorded to the urologist.
How to treat urethritis correctly, will help you to understand. The course of treatment in each individual case is different. How correctly chosen treatment, so quickly pass inflammation. To answer the question of how much treated urethritis, is not immediately available. Because each body reaction to bacteria, infections to the same drug are totally different. The main method of treatment is pharmacotherapy, is the appointment of antibacterial therapy. The antibiotics eliminate infection, defined according to the sowing. Antiseptic antibacterial treatment is carried out in parallel.
Features of treatment of gonorrheal, bacterial type
Antibiotic therapy tsefalosporinovoy group acts quickly and gives excellent results in gonorrheal type of disease. Selection of means of bacterial type depends on the pathogen and the presence of complications. Can use «Erythromycin», «Tetracycline», «Oletetrin». To ensure long-lasting therapeutic action (when there is an ulcer in the channel) use «Bitsilin, but taking a short course. Additionally, drip introduction use treatment with a solution of collargol, silver nitrate. Partner offered to undergo similar treatment.
In complicated inflammatory process (purulent urethritis, desquamative urethritis), provide effective treatment several drugs at once. Typically, this is «Gentamicin» and «Azithromycin». In the preventive purposes it is recommended to take antifungal agents («Nystatin», «Levorin») and vitamins to improve immune defense.
Features therapy Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Gardnerella type
Pathology caused by Ureaplasma, combined into one group: Ureaplasma urethritis, gardeley, Mycoplasma. Each disease is transmitted sexually. Treat these forms is quite difficult. To do this, use a potent drug. Diseases of the urethra treated using lincosamine, fluoroquinolones and the antibiotic tetratziklinovogo series. In the tetracycline group, the best result shows «Doxycycline», and in the group of macrolides «Clarithromycin». Even if the urethritis has passed and the symptoms do not bother, you need 3 times to retake the tests. Only then can we talk about the full recovery.
The specificity of the Candida type
Methods of treatment of diseases (thrush, vaginitis) are different. For therapy using an antifungal medication which affects the Candida. From urethritis appoint «Nystatin», «Pimafucin» Clotrimazole» for washing use a solution of boric acid. He is shown on the background of the underlying disease, therefore the main task — to eliminate the cause that triggered the inflammatory process.
Which drugs are prescribed from a virus type?
The main causative agent is herpes. Inflamed urethra, ulcers hallmark of the disease. Ulcers may coalesce into one large wound. Caused by the virus herpes urethritis treated solely with antiviral. The sooner you start treatment, the sooner would come relief. The use of antibacterial drugs is meaningless. Herpetic urethritis can pass in the application of «Acyclovir», «Herpevir», «Ribavirina, «Famciclovir».
Features therapy allergic urethritis
Allergic applies to non-communicable type of disease. Treatment of non-infectious urethritis is inflammation. Cope with antihistamines and anti-inflammatory drugs with antihistamine action («Miramistin», «Suprastin»). Mechanical urethritis or postcatheterization can be corrected with surgery and drugs antimicrobial action.
The main course of therapy is aimed at relieving pain with urethritis and inflammation. But apart from antibiotics, widely used physiotherapy, homeopathy, folk remedies, diet and local use of the drug. All methods are effective when an integrated approach. For example, direct contact of the medicine and the urethra is indispensable for the therapeutic effect.
Treatments using drugs, and ultrasound, magnetic fields, lasers are used for chronic forms of the disease and are chosen according to the physical characteristics of the patient. To do a thorough washing of the genitals — the main method of physical therapy. Bath with urethritis, anti-inflammatory swabs can remove chronic inflammatory processes, pain, urethritis, to ease other symptoms. However, depending on pathology do not always yield positive results. Additional methods include electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, laser therapy, UHF.
Treatment of folk remedies helps to relieve inflammation and has analgesic and diuretic effects. Herbal medicine is the bearberry, green tea, cranberries removes swelling in the urethra and relieves pain. Useful Linden tea, cowberry drink, and parsley juice. Great for outdoor use (handling genitals) in a home suitable chamomile. All fees, you can prepare yourself, but self-medication can trigger a chemical urethritis. Caution should be taken to select herbs, to take into account the individual tolerability, especially in the treatment of the child.
To neutralize the acidity in the urine you can with the help of baking soda. The soda treatment has destructive effect on bacteria, contributing to the recovery. 0.5 tsp. of baking soda 200 ml of water. That is the proportion of soda to drink for 7 days every morning before eating. To prepare the body first drink a glass of clean water.
Diet if urethritis is an indispensable component of treatment, and is also used as prevention of urethritis. Removed from the diet, salted, smoked or spicy food. But be sure the day is to drink pure water, not less than 2 liters. It helps to flush the urinary organs. In the acute stage must be aged a lacto—vegetarian diet. It is strictly forbidden to take alcoholic beverages.