Tumors of the genitourinary system: symptoms, types
The urinary system is the organ system that accumulate and excrete urine from the human body. The risk of occurrence of tumours of the urinary system is increased under the influence of negative factors. As shown by statistical studies, this pathology is more common in men. If to take statistics of data on cancer in General, the figure is 3 percent.
Types of tumors of the genitourinary system
Cancer starts from cells of tissues that form organs. During normal functioning of the body renewal and division, when the newly formed cells replace the old. But if the process of regulation of tissue growth is disturbed, it begins uncontrolled growth. An excess of these cells and provokes the appearance of tumors. Cancer is of 2 types: benign and malignant.
Benign tumors in most cases are not dangerous with timely treatment. Features that are not formed metastases, without hurting adjacent tissue, no relapse. As observations show, most of the formations appear in the kidneys. A common example of this type of tumor is the adenoma. The possible growth of angiomyolipoma, lipomas, cysts. As for the bladder, it may cause papillomas. These formations are of increased risk of malignancy with the degeneration in cancer cells.
More dangerous to the body malignant tumors, whose cells can be in the blood or the lymphatic system. They are characterized by their ability to create metastases in the organs and systems that occur secondarily after tumor removal. There are different types of malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary system, namely benign prostatic hyperplasia or cancer of such organs as the prostate, kidney, mocevic, the ureter.
The reasons for the development
There are certain risk factors that significantly increase the risk of disease, namely:
- Smoking is one of the main provocateurs. Habit triggers pathological changes. The statistical data indicate that in smokers the risk of developing cancer is 2 times higher than non-smokers.
- Not fully cured inflammation can cause disease.
- The presence of human papilloma virus in the body and the appearance of papillomas on the body is considered to be the precursors of cancer.
- Ionizing radiation adversely affects the urogenital organs, causing pathological processes.
- The effect of industrial carcinogens under the influence are experiencing malignancy.
Cancer of the urinary system is diagnosed using the following symptoms:
- A discomfort during urination.
- Occurs pain, pain, frequent urge to urinate.
- The presence of vaginal bleeding in urine. With a slight discharge diagnosis of this symptom is only possible clinical analysis. If the tumor starts to bleed, the urine gets a large amount of blood, which leads to the change of color. These symptoms can manifest as constantly, and periods.
- The progress of the disease is accompanied by pain in the spine, rectum, perineum, and General malaise of the body, weakness and fatigue.
Symptoms in men
As statistics show, most neoplasms of urinary organs is common among older men. Basically it is a tumor of the prostate that can be benign, and Vice versa. The disease is accompanied next to symptom: burning during urination, frequent urinating, feeling of not complete emptying of the bladder and weak stream intermittent.
Symptoms in women
At increased risk are women who’ve been treated for cancer in the ovaries or in the cervix by means of a ray-tracing method. These factors can induce the formation of tumors in the bladder. In this group of patients tumors can occur in 2 times more often than those who were not exposed to radiation treatment of organs.
There are several ways to diagnose a tumor of the genitourinary system. Visual inspection and palpation can detect large tumors. If the size of little education, used the following methods:
- Examine the cavity of the bladder with an endoscope. This method yields a biomaterial for biopsy.
- Used ultrasound. Besides that, with ultrasound you can learn about the size and the presence of the tumor, this method determines the depth of the metastases.
- Prescribed radiographic examinations using contrast agents.
- Carried out using a clinical urine test examine the composition of urine atypical cells.
- Apply methods of computer and magnetic resonance tomography for a more detailed analysis and a complete picture of the disease.
The conservative methodology
The choice of treatment depends on such factors as the size of education in what grows, whether the metastases. Allocate 2 method of treatment — surgical and medical. Approaches to conservative treatment of urinary system are:
- Exposure. Traditionally, radiation therapy is also used, in order to reduce to a minimum the activity of abnormal cells. For more effective result the method used in conjunction with chemotherapy.
- Chemistry. The use of chemotherapy is advisable during preparation for surgery, to achieve reduction of tumor size. This method is effective after surgery to destroy diseased cells that have failed to remove. When a large lesion of the body and not the possibility of surgical intervention of this procedure is carried out to facilitate the patient’s condition.
- The immune stimulation. To raise immunity and strengthen the body in the fight against pathological processes conduct immunotherapy. The main drugs that are used in this direction include interferon and BCG vaccine.
Surgical solution to the problem
One of the main and effective methods of combating disease is considered surgery. There are several types of surgical intervention in the treatment of tumors in the urogenital system:
- At small dimensions of education excised the closed technique. This procedure is called transurethral resection. Is performed using the catheter, held in the urinary tubules to the bladder.
- In pathology, the size of which is large the deletion is performed through the incision. But this method is not very popular, because it requires long-term rehabilitation.
- In the case of a large lesion of the tissues and organs of tumor process produces a complete removal of the affected organs and tissues. In these cases, using plastic for the withdrawal of urine into the cavity of the intestine or percutaneously.
Complications in the treatment of tumors of the genitourinary system
After the treatment the possible occurrence of complications such as the formation of kidney stones, adhesive disease, metabolic disorders, ureteral reflex, constriction of the anastomoses. The surgical removal of the tumor can cause the following complications: sepsis, infection of the urinary system, urine leakage, deep vein thrombosis.
Prevention and forecasts
The predictions largely depend on the stage of the development process and the effectiveness of treatment. The best results are observed in the complex treatment and the use of multiple methods. Statistics show that after intervention the percentage of occurrence of relapses is reduced to 50%.
To reduce the risk of pathological lesions, you need to follow a few simple rules. In the first place to stop Smoking. The more and longer Smoking, the greater the risk of disease. You should restrict fat intake because they contain carcinogens. Obligatory presence in the diet of vegetables, fruits and whole grain cereals.
It is proved that the fiber contained in these foods to be carcinogenic.
Recommend systematic preventive medical examinations for men 45 years of age, for women from 20 years. Increased body temperature, loss of appetite and weight loss can be signs of tumor formation. Regular exercise promote good health and reduce the likelihood of developing the disease.