Thiazide diuretics list of drugs, mechanism of action
Diuretics — drugs that have a diuretic effect. The most common medicines include thiazide diuretics and diuretics tiazidopodobnye because they are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Most often, these diuretics are used for the treatment of diseases of the urinary system and improve acid-base balance.
Thiazides and their mechanism of action
Diuretics thiazide-series are considered to be medicines average degree of strength, the effect of which occurs in approximately 1-3 hours and lasts for 12 hours. The mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics is aimed at near tubules of the kidney, due to which the reverse absorption of sodium and chloride and increased excretion with urine. In addition, tiazidopodobnye diuretic reduces the urine output of calcium and reduces the formation of uric acid.
Indications for use of diuretics thiazide-series
Thiazide diuretic applied for the treatment of the following pathologies:
- Congestion that have formed due to the kidney disease characterized by the disturbance of water-salt balance. However, the efficacy of thiazide diuretics for the treatment of this disease is low, so they are prescribed with other diuretics (good loop diuretics).
- Edema resulting from liver cirrhosis. Often used in conjunction with other diuretics.
- High blood pressure.
- Acute and chronic heart failure.
Used thiazide diuretics for the treatment of many diseases. Often use the medications, the main components of which are gidrokhlorisiazit and chlorthiazide. They start working after a few hours, and the most powerful of their content is observed after 3-4 hours after ingestion. The action persists for approximately 11-13 hours.
Side effects that occur subsequently receiving thiazide diuretics, often expressed by the distortion in metabolism and in metabolism of trace elements. Common side effects of thiazide diuretics:
- Low content of potassium in the blood plasma. In the case of the occurrence of this side effect doctors forbid to use the medicine and give the body a specialized serum, which contains potassium.
- Reduced concentration of sodium in the blood.
- Changes in the blood plasma, which often causes formation of blood clots.
- The high content of uric acid in the blood that can trigger the development of arthritis and lose acid the kidneys. The patient’s condition returns to normal, if you stop using the diuretic.
- Disruptions in carbohydrate metabolism. The most frequently observed when the patient uses thiazide diuretic along with beta-blockers.
Thiazide diuretics and tiazidopodobnye have a list of contraindications:
- lesions of the glomerular apparatus of kidneys;
- the reduced concentration of potassium in the blood;
- the reduced concentration of sodium;
- pregnancy and breast-feeding;
- idiosyncrasy of the patient, the individual components of the medication.
List of drugs
At the present time a lot of thiazide diuretics, which can be found in virtually every pharmacy. Drugs dispensed without a prescription, however, it is important to remember that medication can only be a doctor, determining the dosage. Most popular thiazide diuretics are «gidrokhlorisiazit», «Indapamide», «Clopamide», «Chlorthalidone».
Refers to a medium diureticum and is used for the treatment of high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver and as a preventive for the appearance of stones. The medication is available in form of tablets which should be consumed after a meal in the morning. For the treatment of high blood pressure, doctors recommend to drink 1 tablet 1 time a day. In cases of edema should drink 1 to 4 tablets. The tool has a number of side effects such as nausea and retching, convulsions, arrhythmia, and allergic reactions on the skin. Not recommended by the doctor to drink «gidrokhlorisiazit» in pregnancy and during lactation, and the elderly. It is important to note that the use of medications should not for a long time to be in the sun because the drug causes increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight.
Used drug for the treatment of high blood pressure. Drink the tool is recommended in the morning, regardless of the meal on the 1st tablet 1 time per day. Causes «Indapamide» these side effects: head pain, irritability, depression, fatigue, spasms. In case of overdose the patient may experience nausea, vomiting, headaches and dizziness, fatigue and confusion. For relieving symptoms of an overdose to wash the stomach and drink the necessary dose of activated charcoal. Should not take medication during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Is tiazid long-term effect, the mechanism of action of which is directed to the output of potassium and magnesium in the urine. Used to reduce the pressure and reduce swelling of a different sort. For the treatment of oedema the use of the drug is recommended 1-2 tablets 1 time a day. After the swelling will gradually go down, the dose will need be reduced. To drink a medicine for lowering pressure should be 1 tablet once a day. «Clopamide» has number of side effects: decreased concentration of sodium and potassium in the blood, retching, seizures, allergies. To use during pregnancy and breast feeding is allowed, however, you should drink the medicine with caution and only when the expected result exceeds possible risk of abnormalities in the fetus.
Doctors prescribe the drug for the treatment of high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, obesity and edema, which were formed due to low protein content in the blood. Dosage appoint specialist by the individual characteristics of the patient. «Chlorthalidon» can cause side effects in the form of headaches, vomiting, diarrhoea, arrhythmia, anorexia and allergic skin rashes. In case of overdose there vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness and low blood pressure. To eliminate the need to overdose stomach pumped and drinking charcoal. The drug is not recommended during pregnancy and breastfeeding.