The tumor marker of the bladder: UBC, NMP22, TPS
Currently, bladder cancer has become more common. His diagnosed every 2nd Smoking men. The tumor marker of the bladder is one of the methods for early diagnosis of cancer. Depending on the response of the tumor marker (positive or negative), the physician decides whether to continue to assign diagnostic procedures and tests for precise diagnosis.
Tumor markers for diagnosis of bladder
Tumor markers — specific substances (mostly protein nature), which are produced by the human body in the development of cancer. The probability of detecting cancer in a patient-specific markers is high, but not always reliable. Most of the substances related to the tumor markers, are produced and healthy cells. Sometimes they appear during the development of diseases, non-oncological nature. There are also cases when patients reliably in the analysis of tumor markers negative. There are such types of tumor markers:
- specific — appear only in certain types of tumors;
- nonspecific — are produced in different types of tumors.
Identify tumor markers just. Conduct blood sampling and urine of the sick person and add special antibodies. This analysis is necessary not only before treatment, as a method for early diagnosis of cancer. It helps to determine how effective therapeutic measures. And also warns about a possible relapse. This method is useful: the patient experiences minimum discomfort and gets the maximum amount of information.
Tumor marker UBC
This is a specific marker of bladder cancer. Is a soluble fragment of cytokeratin (8 and 18) that appear in the spread of cancer cells. UBC antigen bladder cancer has a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 60-78%. The growth of the marker are also possible with the development of inflammation and bacterial infections that affect the urinary system.
The tumor marker NMP22
The tumor marker NMP22 — nuclear matrix protein. One of the most specific tumor markers bladder. Sensitivity analysis — up to 70%. Almost always present in diseased cells in bladder cancer. Marker NMP22 can detect cancer at the earliest stages of education (asymptomatic phase). However, the greatest diagnostic role it plays when using multiple markers of bladder cancer. The falsity of the result of the analysis is affected by the endoscopy of the urinary tract to the fence urine.
Tumor marker TPS
Is a nonspecific marker. Represents a fabric polypeptide (cytokeratin 18). Appears in the formation of epithelial cell tumors (breast, ovarian, prostate, etc.). The highest levels of cytokeratin 18 in patients with metastases. Has an important role in predicting survival in the first year after the remedial measures. Also increased in patients with diseases such as diabetes, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, immune system diseases, benign tumors of the breast and gastrointestinal tract, rheumatism, etc.
Indications and contraindications to the study
Carefully examine the urogenital system and to be tested for tumor markers bladder should be at the following symptoms:
- the appearance of blood in urine (hematuria) is found in each of the 9 th cancer;
- urination disorders — frequent urination, the patient experiences pain during the process, a small amount of urine in 1 act;
- the regular infection of the urinary tract;
- lower back pain;
- swelling of the legs.
On the reliability of the results is influenced by many factors. Therefore, the study should be postponed if:
- the patient was discovered to have acute inflammatory or infectious disease of the urinary tract;
- after invasive intervention in the urinary system less than 2 weeks.
Training and technology tests
Before tests, you need to follow the rules, otherwise the result will be unreliable:
- The tests it is advisable to take in the morning. The blood on an empty stomach — after a meal should take 8-12 hours. The urine must accumulate in the bladder for at least 3 hours.
- 3 days before delivery to eliminate from the diet alcohol, foods rich in fats, smoked products, pickled products. You need to stop Smoking.
- On the eve of the patient it is important not to expose yourself to physical activity.
- To exclude sex for the time specified by the doctor.
- Not to take drugs. Exception — essential medicines (after consulting a doctor).
If the patient strictly adhere to all above rules and he has no contraindications for tests, the reliability of the results high. Technique of taking material (blood, urine) for the study are not different from a standard laboratory. Blood is collected by syringe from a vein. Urine deposited in a special container. Before urine collection, it was important to carry out hygiene procedures.
The upper limit of normal of tumor markers referred to as the discriminatory level and it depends on the type of the token. For antigen UBC norm in the urine is up to 0.12*10-4, and values above the 20,1−110,5*10-4 µg/µmol means the probability of development of malignant tumors. In the blood of a discriminatory level of 32 µg/L. the values of the NMP22 nuclear matrix in the blood more than 10 IU/ml is considered above the norm and requires the conduct of additional diagnostic procedures. For tissue polypeptide TPS in the blood of the norm lies in the range from 0 to 85 U/ml, higher than normal value more than 95 U/ml. If the patient had exceeded the discriminatory level of tumor markers, it does not mean that the patient has bladder cancer. Probably has a hidden inflammatory disease or there were violations in preparation for testing. Only a specialist in Oncology can correctly interpret the test results and decide what to take next steps.