Stricture of the urethra in men and women: treatment, causes, symptoms
There are often problems with urination which are associated with various diseases or injuries of the organs of urinary system. Stenosis or stricture of the urethra — a common disease in which there is a narrowing of the orifice of the urinary canal. For pathology typical urination disorders associated with different manifestations. When stricture of the urethra is hampered excretion of urine, is spray. Pathology requires early diagnosis and proper treatment.
Narrowing of the urinary canal refers to major deviations in urology and requires proper treatment. At narrowing of the opening of the urethra is disturbed excretion of urine, which leads to dangerous consequences, up to kidney failure. Development deviations are the scars that have arisen for different reasons in the place where should be healthy mucosa. For strictures in men and women manifest various symptoms, which depend on the degree and nature of pathology.
Depending on the nature of different congenital and acquired stricture. Klassificeret deviation according to the etiological factor in traumatic, inflammatory, congenital, and idiopathic stenosis. About the last say in the case where could not identify the cause of the disease. Given the nature of the deviation, there are primary, recurrent and complicated disorder. There are several types on the basis of the location of the pathology: the prostatic, membranous (on the rear wall of the urethra), bulbar, penile and glandular stricture.
Stage of development
Pathological process having acquired the character takes place in 3 stages:
- At the initial stage is marked damage urothelia.
- The second stage is characterized by formation of urinary streaks, leading to secondary infections.
- At the last stage the scar tissue is granulated and is growing. Over time, the person is scar-sclerotic process in which the tissue of the mucosa in large measure replaced by scar tissue.
Features of urethral stricture in men
Stricture of the urethra in men is diagnosed twice as often than women. This is due to the peculiar structure of the urinary system. A narrowing of the urethra in men, caused by reasons of different nature, which provoke the blockage of the problem and the excretion of urine. With the defeat of the male urogenital system trauma in the epithelial tissue of the rear wall, disturbed structure of the sponge body. More severe forms of the disease affect the state of the paraurethral tissues. The scar emerged in place of the mucosa, narrowing the lumen of the urethra.
Male urinary tract consists of the following main segments:
- membranous or membranous area;
- prostatic or prostate Department;
- cancellous or spongy.
All parts of the urethra have a special structure and consists of different tissues that have the feature. Therefore, the damaging of the segment will be marked with various symptoms. The most frequently diagnosed stricture of the prostatic Department of the urethra.
Especially in women
The female body suffers from urethral strictures, but much less frequently than men. This is due to the peculiar structure of the urethra that is much shorter. Often the rejection is diagnosed in women who had undergone surgery because of gynecology, in which the infringement occurred and the formation of scar tissue.
The narrowing can occur in any part of the body and in most cases affects large area of the urethra. For women, the formation of urethral strictures is extremely dangerous, because it provokes an overflow of the bladder. As a result, there is strong pressure on internal organs that are located nearby that interferes with their normal work and leads to a shift.
Pathology of the child
Stenosis of the urethra in children is in most cases caused by congenital anomaly, which provoked the abnormal anatomy of the urethra. Mainly the narrowing of the urethra of the child is observed in the lower part of the head of the penis or near the scrotum. If at birth of congenital abnormalities in the genitourinary system were observed, in this case, the stricture caused by trauma under which damaged the structure of the urethra.
In girls anomaly because of an injury is rarely diagnosed, as a rule, the deviation is due to the mobility and elasticity of the urinary canal.
The main reasons
Often stricture is a disorder which occurs independently and is characterized by different symptoms. Often the deviation occurs after Tur of the prostate or other surgical operations on the organs of the urinary system. Stricture frequently occurs after surgery in connection with gynecological problems. Emphasize the following major causes of stricture in the urethra:
- injury or wound in the perineum or genitals;
- fractures of the pelvis;
- prolonged use of urethral catheter;
- infection in the organs of the urogenital system;
- the effect of chemicals on the urethra;
- heavy labor;
- venereal disease.
If the urethral stricture symptoms manifested quickly enough and has pronounced symptoms. First the patient complains of problems with the excretion of urine. This is due to the fact that the lumen is narrowed and does not allow urine to come out fully. Over time, manifested such signs:
- pain in the pelvis;
- spotting when urinating;
- in men, blood in the semen;
- the excretion of urine in a thin stream;
- painful urination;
- feeling of full bladder;
- the reduction in the number of urine.
In severe cases, there is the excretion of urine with a few drops or completely stops the process of urination due to blockage of the lumen. The appearance of the above symptoms, should seek medical attention because of complications of urethral stricture are extremely dangerous and threaten irreparable consequences.
To reveal the stricture of the urethra, you should get tested and be diagnosed using various instrumental methods. The patient is prescribed these laboratory tests:
- a swab from the urethra for certain infections;
- PCR diagnostics;
- bacterial inoculation;
- General analysis of urine;
- bacterial analysis of urine.
Applying uroflowmetry, doctors can determine the speed with which the urine moves through the urethra.
Important diagnostic procedures are cystometry, videourodynamics examination and profilometry. Effective way of research is ultrasound diagnosis of pelvic organs and bladder. The procedure is carried out immediately after emptying the bladder, so you can see how much urine remains. Often a patient is prescribed x-rays and urethrography by which to determine whether diverticulosis or stones. Additionally, conduct endoscopic diagnosis, possible to examine the damaged area of the urethra and to ascertain the reasons for deviations.
Treatment of pathology
Surgery for stricture
After the diagnosis diagnosis and prescribe individual treatment of urethral stricture. In most cases, to completely get rid of the pathology, shows surgery. Surgical method of treatment is divided into several types, which pick up the patient, taking into account the causes, accompanying signs and degree of pathology.
There are various methods of treating stricture of the urethra, one of them is probing. The procedure involves the expansion and stretching of the urethra with a metal rod. This type of surgery is indicated for single, short or secondary stricture. Doctors say that probing does not protect against relapse, and eventually the urethra is again narrow. In this case, re-treatment, this method is not effective and is contraindicated.
Optical urethrotomy and laser treatment
Urethrotomy used in the case where stricture of the small size. The procedure is performed using a cystoscope, which cut the narrowed part of the body, then insert the metal rod. The procedure does not protect against relapse, after which operation of this type do not. The safest treatment is using laser. Before starting operation, you must run an optical examination, and then carries out a surgical intervention.
Stenting in the plot, which formed the stricture, urethral right spring, or stent, which is the extension of the hole. Stenting is used in rare cases because of possible side effects. Often there is a shift spring in hand, which entails dangerous consequences.
Traditional methods of treatment
Treatment at home is quite controversial and should be agreed with your doctor. The use of folk remedies are able to eliminate unpleasant symptoms, but is unlikely to eliminate the disease fully. The most efficient are the leeches which are placed on the skin projection of the ureter. Session duration is quite long — up to 8 hours. Also used decoctions on the basis of black currants and cranberries. To normalize the outflow of urine, use the decoction of juniper, black poplar, chamomile or elderberry.
Pathology is quite dangerous, because it entails a lot of complications when not treated. Over time, difficult elimination of urine leads to strain on the muscles of the bladder, which soon atrophies. When accumulation of urine there is a greater likelihood of infection and development of inflammatory process in chronic form. Without treatment pathology of threatened infringement of functions of kidneys due to stagnation of urine up to the kidney failure.
Prognosis and prevention
With early detection of pathology and cosmetic surgery of the ureter, the prognosis is quite favorable. Some time the patient needs to be checked by a urologist and closely monitor the process of urination. To avoid this problem, you should take preventive measures. It is important to treat diseases of the genital organs and urinary system. To prevent injury and adverse effects on the urethra. During sex to use protection to avoid infection.