Rare urination: causes, symptoms, treatment

A small amount of urine produced against the drinking liquid is a very worrying sign. Rare urination indicates serious health problems in adults and in children. A significant reduction in the amount of urine per day is called oliguria. During oliguria, the bladder is filled with rare, respectively, is allocated a small amount of urine.

Causes of oliguria

Syndrome rare urination is a dangerous urological condition, which when severe neglect threatens a person’s life.

When pathology is formed and released in small portions of about 400-500 ml of urine a day, when the average rate is equal to 1.5 L. the Causes, provoking the decrease in amount of urine, range from temporary conditions to more serious problems. Oliguria is a serious symptom caused by one or more diseases. Depending on the nature of the pathology, which decreased the amount of urine, there are 3 types of oliguria.


Occurs due to disrupted blood circulation in the body (hypovolemia) or reduction in the natural vascularity of the kidneys (hypoperfusion). Other causes — clinical disorders, which lead to additional removal of fluid from the body, such as bleeding, diarrhea, vomiting and excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).


Is a consequence of a complete or partial renal dysfunction: the inability to form or excrete urine (renal failure), glomerulonephritis, embolism, pyelonephritis acute flow, hemolytic anemia, disorders of blood vessels. The efficiency of the kidneys may be disrupted due to injury or side effects caused by drugs.


The main reason is obstructive phenomenon. A blockage of the urinary tract leads to a slow withdrawal of fluid. The root cause of this can be stones, tumor growths, blood clots and other Rare urination in men is often a consequence of prostatitis and BPH. Very high risk are emergency circumstances, such as when the patient only has one kidney.

About oliguria

If an adult little urine when urinating, but it is not related to kidney disease and does not bring pain, the most likely cause of inadequate fluid intake or excessive sweating. It is not considered a deviation from the norm and about is called oliguria. The same happens with children: if a child urinates little, but feels good, you will most likely need to increase the amount of fluid per day. However, it is impossible to prevent severe dehydration of the body, as this condition can lead to kidney failure. About oliguria can occur as a result of stress, shock, neurotic disorders, etc. (psychogenic factor) or therapeutic purposes (iatrogenic factor).

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Symptoms of oliguria

The main symptom is a significant decrease in urine.

Cause for concern — plenty of fluids, but in fact always empty the bladder, a very rare urge to emptying it and feeling bad. If time does not begin treatment, the pathology is exacerbated and becomes anuria — complete cessation of urination. Anuria and oliguria accompanied by violation of passage of urine, drawing pain in the abdomen and General malaise. Complete absence or a small release of urine accompanied by symptoms of rejection, which was the cause of oliguria:

  • When obstruction of the urinary tract: bodily pain, scanty urination, nausea, vomiting, severe swelling, temperature.
  • Bacterial infection, drying of the body due to loss of fluid and electrolytes. Symptoms: hypotension, thirst, muscle cramps, acute diarrhea, tachycardia, and vomiting.
  • The trauma associated with shock, which decreases blood flow to the organs. In shock the man also is a medical emergency.
  • Stones sharp pain in groin, in region of external reproductive system and the pubic area, nausea, bloating, vomiting especially in the morning, high temperature and chills.

Features in pregnant

During pregnancy rare urination in women may be due to the pressure of enlarged uterus on the ureters, in which the kidneys can not cope with the withdrawal of the liquid. Another reason is the increased hydrophilicity of fabrics with a characteristic inner or outer edema or dropsy. A pregnant woman must consult a doctor and the presence of characteristic signs specialist will choose a treatment procedure, fasting days, recommend a special drinking regime, diet, reduction of salt in the diet etc.

Oliguria in a child

Signs of oliguria in children occur for the same reasons as in adults. But if the child seldom urinates, he has loose stools, slabosilie, then you should immediately see a doctor and not to self-medicate. The cause of the illness and rare urination in a child will determine only an expert. From the first days of a newborn baby may have signs of physiologic oliguria. This is due to stabilization of maternal lactation. This oliguria in children is not dangerous and goes to the end of the first month of life. If it lasts more than 2 months, it already belongs to pathology. The baby especially requires compliance with drinking regime, especially in the heat. Rare urination in a child can be caused by a shortage of water, shortage of breast milk, liquid stools.

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Diagnosis of the disease

During examination of the patient, the doctor should diagnose the disease, which has become a cause of oliguria. Definition of the disease begins with a medical history of the patient, a thorough medical examination and a conversation with the patient, to determine the following issues:

  • when started reduced urination;
  • it happened suddenly or gradually;
  • how much fluid is consumed each day;
  • does the amount of urine with an increase of fluid per day;
  • what amount of urine is produced each day;
  • medications or herbal supplements over the past period;
  • are there diseases of the urinary system.

After inspection and conversations with the patient, most likely, the doctor will prescribe several diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of the underlying disease. Depending on medical history, symptoms and well-being of the patient are assigned the necessary tests that help figure out why the disturbed passage of urine:

  • urinalysis to detect infection or inflammation (the analysis is taken through catheterization, and lets you know the exact amount of flow);
  • a bacterial culture test to identify bacteria;
  • x-rays;
  • examination of the abdominal cavity on CT;
  • cystoscopy;
  • blood tests to ascertain the presence of infection, anemia or renal failure;
  • pyelogram (in a vein in the arm injected dye to detect tumors and stones);
  • ultrasound to check for renal masses or the presence of cysts.

The treatment of rare urination

When you reduce the amount of daily urine can not make their own diuretic drugs.

First, diuretic (diuretic) funds are accepted only when identified prerenal oliguria. Second, they alter the clinical data of blood and urine (specific gravity, the ratio of the concentration of urea and creatinine). Therefore man must first contact the clinic, get tested and start treatment at the personal scheme prescribed by the attending physician. If no urine is associated with infection therapy antibiotics are used, depending on the underlying infectious agent. When there is glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis, in addition to the medicines the doctor prescribes a diet. If the identified tumors or stones applied surgery. Sometimes you need to be hospitalized to get through the dropper to enter the patient fluid intravenously, if the body is severely dehydrated. In severe cases require hemodialysis.

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Other syndromes and disorders of the urine

The daily proportion of urine excreted by a healthy person (diuresis), varies depending on drinking water, sweating, frequency of breathing, changes of weather, fluids, excreted in feces. But with a pathology in the body can occur violation of the formation and release of urine. The types of possible violations are shown in the table below:

Types of urinary disorders
Name Description
Polyuria Copious urination, the output is more than 2 l per day
Nocturia Urine more at night than in the morning or afternoon
Pollakiuria Frequent urination, more than 6 times a day
Dysuria Frequent, difficult, accompanied by pain urination
Strangury Pain when urinating in small amounts, drops
Ischuria The hold urine in the bladder

Preventive measures and forecast

Successful treatment and quick relief from oliguria depends on the type of disease and degree of neglect. Timely access to a nephrologist reduces the chance of serious consequences in a few times, but if you don’t treat oliguria, it can lead to serious complications and diseases dangerous to life:

  • hypertension;
  • heart failure;
  • anemia;
  • dysfunction of platelets;
  • gastro-intestinal problems.

To avoid violations of the diuresis can only be a healthy person. Therefore, you should observe personal hygiene, to reduce the use of alcohol and tobacco, to observe a drinking mode and to control the quality and the amount of urine. When the ailments that cause dehydration (diarrhea, fever, etc.), to increase fluid intake. In children’s consultations for young mothers it is necessary to clarify what is oliguria and what to do to avoid trouble. In identifying any abnormalities or inflammatory infections do not self-medicate, and immediately contact the doctor. To take medicine only as directed by your doctor.