Parasites in the urogenital system: schistosomiasis, amoeba, filariasis
Helminthiasis — a disease in which the body is affected by parasites, distributed all over the world. Urogenital schistosomiasis — helminths lose bladder. Parasites, infecting the urinary system, enter the blood and urine and cause diseases including cancer. People from countries with a low level of development are susceptible to invasion to a greater extent than people from developed countries. The largest number of cases are in Africa, Asia, South America and the middle East.
Schistosomiasis of the bladder
Urogenital schistosomiasis is a disease caused by helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosoma — trematode cylindrical shape with a size of only 2 mm, are attached by the oral and ventral sucker. Lives and replicates shistosoma in the veins and blood vessels. Mature female is on the ventral wall of the male in a separate channel. Leaves the shelter only to lay eggs. The larvae of schistosomes secrete an enzyme that dissolves the membranes of blood vessels.
Sistematis bladder develops when ingested immature forms of the worms — cercaria. Intermediate carrier of the parasite — the freshwater gastropod molluscs that look like a snail. The clam 4-8 weeks, the parasite is going through a larval stage, becoming the first of in, then in radio. Radii, leaving the clam, develop into cercaria. One individual per day is able to allocate up to 4 thousand larvae. In the human body cercaria ingested through contaminated water, gets rid of the tail and converted to shistosoma. Worms who do not comprehend the person dies within 48 hours. Man is the final host of the parasite. The maturation process of larvae in Mature Schistosoma able to lay eggs takes 3 months. Parasites reproduce only in the case that are present in the body males and females.
Schistosomiasis of the genitourinary system improper treatment leads to death. According to who, every year, from the invasion killed up to 200 thousand people. Infection occurs in fresh water or in contact with water containing larvae. After penetration of cercariae to person contagious it becomes 8 weeks. Selection of larvae with urine happening for decades. Transferred urogenital schistosomiasis does not constitute immunity, reinfection is possible.
Amoebiasis — a disease affecting the large intestine. Genitourinary amebiasis is formed when the penetration of the microbe in the urinary tract from the intestines. In women the organism from the intestine enters the vagina. Is inflammation of the external and internal genital organs. Transmission occurs through sexual and oral.
The source of the disease — germ one-celled amoeba. Infestation is characterized by a pathological inflammatory processes in the urogenital system. The amoeba exists in the active phase and the resting stage, transforming into a cyst. The cyst is rounded microorganism with a size of 0.015 mm, is characterized by a double shell. Life expectancy in the stool — 30 days in the water 60-130 days. Germs enter the body from the carrier of cysts, as a rule, people. Often the patient is unaware of the germs in the body. In environment cysts enter the faeces. Penetration of parasites in the soil or water cause contamination of crops, which occurs through the invasion of man. On the surface of the skin die within 5 minutes, but under the nails live 60 minutes or more. Genitourinary amebiasis is expressed by the appearance of ulcers on the glans penis, in the vagina. Inflamed lymph nodes in the groin area.
Filariasis is the General name for diseases caused by extraintestinal nematodes of the form Filariata. Filaretos, affecting the lymphatic system of man — whereas and brugioz. The disease is spread in Africa, South America, Asia. On the territory of other countries are watching the cases that are brought by tourists. According to who, there are about 140 million infected people in the world. The absence or incorrect treatment leads to the development of elephantiasis.
Filaria — threadlike worms, round in shape, are classified as nematodes. The size of the females is 10 cm, males — 4 see Filaria are distinguished by their complex life cycle. Intermediate carriers — blood-sucking insects, swallowing the microfilariae with the blood of a human or animal. In the insect the parasite reaches maturity, and subsequent bites lead to infection of the definitive host — man. In the human body, the microfilariae migrate in the subcutaneous blood vessels, causing severe itching. Mature microfilaria settle in lymphoid formations, blocking the lumen of the lymph nodes. The presence of the worms causes inflammation and increased connective tissue, thickening of walls of blood vessels. The microfilariae can live for 3 years, and some of microfilariae remain viable for 20 years or longer. The incubation period lasts from person 18 months, during primary infection up to 6 months.
Symptoms of parasites in the bladder
All the types of helminth infestations of the bladder are manifested by the body’s reaction not to the parasites, and larvae. The early stage of infection characterized by severe itching, local skin redness, rash, swollen lymph nodes. The bladder is affected immediately, infection with worms occurs after a few months. The main symptoms of parasites in the urinary system:
- painful, itchy rashes on the body;
- local redness of the epidermis;
- loss of appetite;
- diarrhea, alternating with constipation;
- constant fatigue;
- restless sleep;
- nervous disorders;
- aching pain in the abdomen and lower back;
- pain when urinating;
- rash on the genitals;
- the presence of blood in the urine;
- vaginal bleeding;
- the discomfort during intercourse.
Ignoring initial symptoms of infection, and improper treatment will lead to serious consequences. The accumulation of a large number of larvae causes destruction of blood vessels and bleeding of mucous membranes. Eggs deposited in muscle, on the walls of the bladder and on the shells of ureters, causing fibrosis and reducing the size of majevica. The appearance of multiple ulcers may provoke formation of cancer of the bladder. Parasites in the bladder of a human cause other complications:
- Lymph tissues of the genitourinary system.
- The formation of abscesses, which, opening outwards, causing peritonitis.
- The formation of holes in the walls of the bladder, leading to permanent infection.
- The formation of cysts in the bladder and kidneys.
- The development of elephantiasis.
- In men is manifested swelling of the testicles, epididymitis, increases the sensitivity of the scrotum and penis. The scrotum in some cases increased up to 20 kg and more.
- In women there is vaginal bleeding, may develop cancer of the uterus and appendages.
- In children leads to severe anemia, stunted development and reduced mental activity.
How to diagnose infestation?
Worms in the bladder are identified instrumental and laboratory tests after 1.5 months after the invasion. The preliminary diagnosis requires immunological tests, confirming the presence of antibodies to the parasites. The disease is diagnosed by identifying eggs of worms in urine and feces. The first thing prescribed by your doctor — the urine. Worms in the bladder causes hematuria, increased protein content and white blood cells. Standard methods for the determination of worms — settling, filtration and separation of the urine into fractions. Urine samples collected in a period of the greatest concentration of larvae — from 10.00 to 14.00. A blood test will show the increase in leukocytes, neutrophils and signs of anemia. For some parasites of the urinary system — a temporary dwelling place, so you should pass the faeces on yaytseglist.
Additional information obtained after undergoing cystoscopy. In the study of the bladder is visualized with a special instrument, the introduction of which occurs through the urethra. Such a diagnostic method allows to observe shistosomozy granulomas, amoebic ulcer, local accumulation of Agapitov. Biopsy of pathologically disturbed areas of majevica. Ultrasound reveals a violation of the blood vessels of the genitourinary system, the change in shape of the bladder, the presence of tumors in the kidneys and the ureters. Mass examination of the population of endemic regions requires a subcutaneous allergodil with antigens. In addition to infectious diseases, the disease diagnosed by gastroenterologists and urologists.
Treatment of parasites in the urogenital system
Treatment of patients diagnosed with urogenital schistosomiasis, carried out in a hospital. The effectiveness of treatment have proved 2 of the drug «Praziquantel» and «Azinoks». The daily dose of 40 mg per kilogram of body weight. For complete recovery of one course is not enough drugs, often prescribed to undergo 2-3 courses. To improve the function of damaged organs will help symptomatic and pathogenic treatment. Secondary infection requires the use of antibiotics of tetracycline group. The treatment also includes the use of antihistamines. Dosage and choice of drug assigns the attending physician exclusively.
Each case of amebiasis requires a complex treatment. To begin therapy should be first symptoms. Effective drugs: «Metronidazole», «Tinidazole» and «Glaygl». Amoebiasis is not treated by applying one of the drug, except protivogaznyh drugs, requires symptomatic treatment. When General intoxication appoint sorbents, signs of anemia requires iron supplements.
The symptoms of filariasis requires hospitalization. To reduce lymphedema will help the sublime position of the swollen limb in a complex application with compression underwear. Complicated cases of lymphedema is necessary to treat surgically. To combat the parasite prescribe the drug «Diethylcarbamazine», if allergic to the drug additionally prescribe antihistamines.
How to avoid infection?
Who annually organizes preventive actions in the countries the highest prevalence of parasites. The primary problem is limited access to clean drinking water. In many countries, people drink water, bathe and watered animals in the same freshwater pond. To avoid infestation by worms can be observing the elementary rules of hygiene:
- wash hands after each visit to the toilet;
- do not drink raw water from suspicious bodies of water, especially near pastures;
- do not swim in unfamiliar fresh water;
- efficiently used to wash vegetables and fruits.
The development of world tourism will lead to the spread of parasites from endemic countries. Being in a foreign country, be cautious to consume unfamiliar foods, drink only bottled water. After visiting regions with high prevalence of parasites is within 1-2 months to pass urine and feces on yaytseglist.