Osmotic diuretics: mechanism of action, indications for use
To increase the osmotic pressure using drugs osmodioretiki. Under their influence the interstitial fluid is transported in the blood. Most often they are used to eliminate swelling of the organs. Have side effects in the form of disorders of the digestive system, increases the risk of venous thrombosis, phlebitis different.
The mechanism of action of osmotic diuretics
The mechanism of action of osmotic diuretics: they are pulling fluid from the tissue into the blood, increase blood volume. This increases the circulation of blood in the perinephric tissues. The kidneys function better, increasing the filtration function. The increase of the volume of circulated blood in peritubular space leads to disruption of the countercurrent system the loop of Henle.
Osmotic diuretics are well filtered in renal glomeruli are absent in the primary urine. Their action leads to an obstacle to the absorption of sodium in renal tubules. One of the most effective drugs that belong to this group, is «Mannitol». Other funds may have less therapeutic effect.
Indications for use
Medicines belonging to the group of osmotic diuretics are used to increase urine output and increase blood pressure, which causes an increase in blood volume. In an emergency use often. Used in acute renal failure and in the initial stages of its development, with swelling of the throat and severe poisoning. Used in case when it is necessary to create rapid diuresis in situations that threaten the occurrence of acute tubular necrosis.
The medical preparation belonging to the group of osmotic diuretics. Used to increase the pressure of the blood plasma by reducing the pressure in the tissues. Is used to reduce swelling inside the eye, skull. Increases the output of body fluids and sodium with enhanced functioning of the kidneys. Diuretic effect starts after a few hours, and the reduction in pressure occurs in 10-20 minutes.
Prescribed for swelling of the brain after injuries and surgeries, swelling, which is accompanied with renal or hepatic insufficiency. Administered parenterally. Possible side effects: disturbance in the digestive system, cardiac functions and increased volume of circulated blood. Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to components of drug, in heart failure, during pregnancy and the lactation period.
Diuretic is «Potassium acetate»
Used as a diuretic for edema, which is accompanied by such pathologies as heart failure. Used for nephrosis, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver. Take orally in a volume of 1 tablespoon up to 5 times per day. The course of treatment is up to 6 days, then a break to avoid disturbance in the digestive tract. Prolonged use of diuretics leads to loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting. Possible diarrhea. Categorically contraindicated in acute inflammatory process in the kidneys.
Used for cerebral edema, acute attacks of glaucoma. Used topically for the treatment of festering wounds, hyperkeratosis, ihtisab. Administered intravenously on the basis of the glucose solution. The effect is noticeable half an hour after application in the case of glaucoma. Swelling in the brain solution is starting to have an effect on the brain tissue several hours after ingestion. Not to disturb the water balance of the body, in the first days of reception of diuretic use a solution of glucose or sodium chloride, together with ascorbic acid.
Diuretic side effects: dry mouth, venous thrombosis, palpitations. During application of the drug should be closely monitored for changes in blood pressure. Intravenous administration of osmotic diuretics should be wary of getting medication into the subcutaneous cover, as this can lead to further development of necrosis.