Operations on the urogenital system: types, indications
As a result of the ailments and injuries of the genitourinary system there is a need for surgical treatment. Dependent on the location of operations on the urogenital system can be divided into 3 categories: gynecological, urological, urinary output. At the patient of the possible plastic surgery of the external genitalia to improve their aesthetics, reconstruction or gender reassignment. Modern medicine has set the objective of maximum preservation of all functions of the genitourinary system and uses the least invasive technology. The intervention is carried out exclusively by the surgeons-urologists surgeons and gynecologists.
Indications for surgical treatment
The indications for surgery of the genitourinary system may be congenital anomalies, mechanical damage, benign and malignant neoplasms, inflammatory processes. There are specific diseases that are eliminated by surgical intervention.
Operations on the urogenital organs performed under anesthesia. If necessary, General anaesthesia must take into account the age and condition of the patient. The presence in the patient suffering a heart attack or stroke, diabetes, heart rhythm disorders raises the possibility of intervention at risk.
Operations on the urogenital system:
Surgical treatment of the genitourinary system is divided into radical and conservative plastic. The recovery of organs and functions after radical intervention is impossible, in contrast to organ-sparing operations. Dependent on the method of access to the insides, surgeries are invasive and minimally invasive. Invasive (open) intervention in the urogenital system involves the incision of the skin, fat and muscle tissues. Minimally invasive method carries with it the introduction of a special tool through the urethra or the vagina, or the implementation of a small (0.5—1 cm) incisions of the anterior abdominal wall.
Laparotomy is the most common method of surgery, a laparoscopy, hysteroscopy and endoscopyan — invasive.
Typical gynecological operations
If the testimony arises the need to remove the ovary, carry out prophylactic oophorectomy (the removal of the ovary) or adnexectomy (removal with the fallopian tubes). In endometriosis and polycystic assigned to operations aimed at excision of the tissue of the ovary of the affected areas — decortication and cautery (mechanical removal), surgical diathermy (burning electrode), electrodrilling (removal of electric shock). Cysts, kestose, the tumor is removed by resection, and cystectomy.
Surgery to remove the uterus are called amputation and resection. The difference is that in removing the organ is removed along with the cervix. Abortion (curettage of the uterus) is the most common gynecological procedure in which the vagina is removed through the fertilized egg, and vyskablivayut the uterine wall. When uterine prolapse performed a vaginal hysterectomy. If there is a need to remove the fallopian tube, hold tubectomy. With tubal (ectopic) pregnancy is shown lobotomia. The latter allows you to preserve the tube and fertility.
Surgery of male genital organs
Among operations on the testicles surgeons often carry out the elimination of the varicocele — venous outflow disorders in the testis, accompanied by swelling. During the procedure, a severed vein is tied off by ligating. With the appearance of excess fluid in the vaginal tunic of the testicle is hydrocele surgery involving its removal. Orchiectomy is carried out when torsion of the spermatic cord. Surgery is indicated in case of damage to the protein shell of the egg. To treat such an injury in the place of rupture sutured with resorbable material.
Men often face the problem of hyperhidrosis — excessive formation on the tip of my penis foreskin. In such cases, a successful excision is when the unwanted tissue is drawn and clipped in a circle. If frenulum penis short, showing her cut in the transverse direction — frenulotomy. For surgical treatment of BPH most commonly used transurethral resection — removal of damaged tissue disease by introducing into the urethra of the resectoscope.
Operation on urinary tract, kidneys and bladder
The most common manipulation for the treatment of the urinary system:
- nephrotomy — incision of the parenchyma for the removal of foreign bodies, e.g. stones;
- puncture drainage — introduction to the body of the kidney special needle to remove the cyst.
- cystolithotripsy and cystotomy — removal of stones of different size;
- resection through the introduction of instruments through the cavity of the urinary tract (TURP) is performed to eliminate mechanical damage, tumors, unevenness;
- the method Boari — replacing the split of the Department mahanagarpalika passage with a piece of wall mahanagarpalika of the tank.
- ureterectomy — removal of stones from the ureter when periureteral;
- ureterostomy — the restoration of the integrity of the ureter in case of mechanical damages;
- resection and replacement of the ureter segment of the small intestine.
- Urinary tract:
- the procedure of Aliot, Albarran, Guyon, Koltsov — closure of fistula of urethra;
- probing, urethrotomy, meatotomy, perineal urethrostomy — methods of correcting strictures (narrowing of the urethra).
After surgery on the urinary tract or the bladder is recommended to install a special catheter. Catheterization allows the rest of the bodies after the intervention, necessary for tissue repair. With such a method it is possible to avoid stagnation of urine and blockage of the urethra by blood clots, if necessary, flushing of the bladder and inject drugs.