Metastatic kidney cancer: prognosis, symptoms, treatment
Kidney cancer is the most common type of cancer that develops in the urinary system. In the diagnosis of metastatic kidney cancer, the probability of a successful outcome is greatly reduced. The metastases are in the last stages, which, as a rule, and revealed cancer. First affects the lymphatic system, and then cancer spreads to adjacent organs and the brain, which is manifested typical symptoms.
How metastatic kidney cancer?
Metastases in kidney cancer occurs when a malignant tumor develops to a 3rd or 4th stage. When metastasis the cancer cells move with the flow of blood and lymph through the body, and in this way spreading to healthy organs. Cancer cells are implanted into tissues and organs begin to develop there. Metastases from renal cancer can damage organs that are nearby and far away lymph nodes. In most cases, kidney cancer metastasizes to the lungs, bones and brain.
In rare cases, metastases occur at the initial stage of cancer, which greatly complicates the therapy and threatens fatal to the patient.
At the origin of metastases in cancer are divided into the following:
- primary, which occur naturally, i.e. by themselves;
- secondary, later surgical intervention, which was damaged by a tumor.
Cancer cells that with the help of blood or lymph has moved to other organs, can for a long period does not appear to be active. This is due to good immunity. So when it is reduce stress, or viral diseases, cancer cells aktiviziruyutsya and beginning to grow. If you metastasize the new tumor can occur in a couple of weeks.
What bodies hit the metastases?
Metastases to the lungs
When cancer kidney disease lung metastasis is the most common. Lungs are affected in most cases for the reason that they venous blood circulates priority than all the other bodies. Another reason for the occurrence of metastases — mass location of the lymph nodes in the lungs. Doctors distinguish between patients in whom metastasis in kidney cancer appeared in the lungs, into two groups:
- The first pathology was detected in primary cancer examination.
- The second group of patients received the metastases in malignant lung tumors that arose after surgical therapy for kidney cancer.
When the spread of cancer to the lungs, the patient may not experience any symptoms. Sometimes the person is observed to be groundless cough, which eventually expectorated blood. The patient has shortness of breath and pain in chest. To identify metastasis in an internal organ by using an x-ray and fluoroscopy.
After the lungs «favorable place» for cancer metastases kidney is the liver. This internal organ there is increased blood supply and there are many factors that contribute to the development of malignancy. When liver metastases are multiple tumors. Doctors rarely see that with metastasis in the liver to form one malignant node.
Metastases to the liver usually no symptoms don’t worry man. In some cases symptoms common symptoms:
- sudden weight loss until anorexia;
- General weakness and fatigue;
- pain on the right side;
If metastases in the liver block the bile ducts, then the outflow is broken and it gets into the blood, while the patient has jaundice, resulting in yellow whites of their eyes, skin. In turn your urine is a dark color, and the stool become lighter. Metastases in the latter stages affect the blood supply of hepatic vessels, which threatens the ascites and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. When there is metastasis of kidney cancer in the liver, the patient can live without therapy for about a year.
Metastases in the skin
In kidney cancer metastases to the skin occur rarely. The deviation manifests the appearance of dense knots on the skin or the appearance of a papule, which is painted in red color. In some cases, cancer cells on the skin does not appear for 10-15 years after a kidney removal or a tumor from her. Kidney cancer metastasis occurs mainly in the skin of the lower abdomen, the genitalia or part of the head, which is covered with hair. In rare cases the deflection of the kidneys causes metastasis to the face area (nose and eyelids) and fingertips.
Metastasis to bone
When injured bone tissue due to cancer of the kidneys, the patient feels severe pain. Primarily the disease affects the hip bones and ribs. The development of the pathology is possible in two ways: tissue destruction, which leads to holes in the bones or seals. In humans, metastasis of kidney cancer in bones are marked by pain, the patient is experiencing frequent fractures. Sometimes a cancer in the bones leads to paralysis. Often the metastases can be felt and to identify the diagnostic procedures. If time does not detect cancer, it progresses rapidly. In severe cases, the survival rate is extremely low, the person with this pathology could not live more than a year.
Metastases in the spine
Damaged spine becomes very vulnerable and is gradually destroyed. Without remedial measures the resulting tumor in the spine puts considerable pressure on the spinal cord. With the growth of education damaged nerves and all this can trigger numbness and paralysis. The first alarm signal is impaired excretion of urine. Modern medicine offers methods of struggle in the case of progressing spinal malignant cells. It is important to detect deviation at an early stage.
Metastasis to the brain
Metastezirovanii cancer kidney disease in the brain is extremely dangerous. This provokes a squeezing, destruction and irritation of healthy tissue of the organ. This raises such symptoms:
- the pain in the head;
- speech is impaired;
- General weakness and fatigue;
- decline vision;
- numbness of limbs;
To musculoskeletal system to function properly, a coordinated effort of the cerebellum. Emotional control, speech, mental abilities, memory, identity, behaviour, sexual stimulation is to the frontal lobes. For hearing and organizational skills responsible of the temporal lobe. With the help of occipital areas is controlled by vision, and the medulla oblongata controls breathing and heartbeat. If there is cancer education, at least in this one area, completely disrupted the work of the brain.
To detect cancer in the brain by using x-ray, CT or MRI.
Symptoms are manifested, depending on how much the metastases in the kidneys and other organs invaded the tissue. The more organs are damaged, the brighter and more and the patient will present signs of cancer. The main clinical picture observed in one quarter of patients with metastatic kidney cancer, as follows:
- Blood in the urine is diagnosed more than half of patients. It is worth to pay attention to this important feature that many people overlook and allow cancer to progress.
- Renal colic, due to obstruction of the ureter by blood clots.
- Pain in the lower back which are manifested in the case when the diseased liver or bone. Pain can vary in intensity and character.
- Shortness of breath that is associated with the spread of the tumor to the lungs.
- Sudden weight loss.
- Constantly high body temperature.
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment for metastatic kidney cancer is carried out by several methods, depending on the severity of the lesion and the symptoms. In modern medicine there are the following ways to solve:
- operative therapy;
- targeted therapy in which the patient prescribe drugs that block the growth and spread of malignant cells.
When surgical therapy is used nephrectomy, which involves removal of the damaged organ. The use of radiation or chemotherapy is almost not practiced, because metastatic cancer is rarely amenable to such therapeutic methods. With the help of immunotherapy improve survival with cancer by a few percent. It is crucial to identify the condition because of kidney cancer of 4 degrees with metastases complicates the treatment and threatened with death.
It is extremely difficult to predict the outcome in metastatic kidney cancer. The most dire prediction is made in the injury of the veins of the kidney, or distant lymph nodes. The survival rate and life expectancy depends on how badly injured bodies and how quickly rendered curative measures. If the surgery is rendered in time, the chances of living more than 5 years is 50%.