Kalisberegate dioretiki, drugs, mechanism of action
Diuretics that retain potassium in the human body are called potassium-sparing diuretics. The medicines act on the distal tubule of the nephron, which promotes the retention of potassium which is an essential element of life, which is essential for the normal functioning of the body. Apply diuretics this group often for the treatment of high blood pressure.
Potassium-sparing diuretics are widely distributed in the treatment of hypertension. However, this type of diuretics has a significant drawback — low efficiency of the decompression. On this basis, drugs, saving potassium, administered in complex treatment of hypokalemia (lowered concentration of potassium ions in blood plasma) paired with a loop or thiazide diuretic. In addition to treatment of high blood pressure, medicines of this type is used for:
- conduct specialized treatment of patients suffering from primary aldosteronism (a disease that affects the adrenal cortex);
- edema, which was formed out of frustration develop primary adrenal hormone;
- heart failure (as a secondary drug);
The use of hypertension
In the treatment of high blood pressure specialists recommend taking potassium-sparing diuretic in small doses. In cases where the special effect of the treatment does not work, the dose is often not raised, because these measures will not lead to a decrease in pressure and will act as an agent provocateur of the development of a greater number of side effects. Doctors prescribe extra diuretics or completely replaced by potassium-sparing or thiazide to a loop diuretic.
In heart failure
Patients who suffer heart failure, faced with the fact that the water in the body excessively delayed, which is fraught with complications. To cope with this situation will help the diuretic drug, he that saves potassium. Experts begin therapy with small doses of diuretics, and over time increasing it until the patient begins to lose weight. The final effect which should be achieved by using diuretics, is a wholly-owned resorption of oedema. Diuretics that don’t wash out potassium, are the most appropriate funds, especially when it comes to long-term treatment, because they have a more gentle effect and help to maintain the right amount of potassium in the body.
Potassium-sparing diuretic medication during pregnancy
In the whole period of pregnancy women frequently catch a variety of swelling, most often they are observed in the last months, closer to leave. To cope with the swelling and rid the body of excess accumulated water, experts prescribe women specialized diet, which is control over the amount of salt coming with food. In conjunction with a balanced diet, doctors recommend to consume and diuretics, giving preference to medications that can replenish the potassium. Pregnancy is an important time in a woman’s life that requires the body sufficient amounts of potassium. That is why doctors prescribe diuretics, which do not have a Stripping effect on potassium ions in blood plasma.
The mechanism of action of drugs
Diuretics do not deducing of potassium are the most benign drugs in contrast to other diuretics, their power of action on the organism and duration of onset of effect is significantly inferior to diureticum other groups. Easiest mechanism of action is due to the fact that drugs of this type — aldosterone antagonists. This component is causing the effect on water-salt metabolism, keeps potassium, increases blood pressure and a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. Diuretic that washes away potassium, works because it blocks aldosterone in two ways:
- slows down the synthesis of the hormone by acting on the receptors it gives the ability to excrete sodium from the urine and thereby increase the concentration of potassium;
- inhibits the transport of sodium ions.
When taking potassium-sparing diuretics may experience the following side effects:
- the development of kidney stones;
- sensitivity to bright sunlight;
- nausea and retching;
- diarrhea or constipation;
- dizziness and headache;
- rashes on the skin;
- erection deterioration;
- change in the menstrual cycle.
Classification of funds that do not take potassium
Diuretics that don’t wash away potassium, divided into 2 groups:
- Competitive antagonists of aldosterone (act on aldosterone receptors and block them).
- Inhibitors of tubular secretion of potassium (increases the excretion of sodium, fluids, and chlorine that helps to reduce withdrawal potassium).
List potassium-sparing and their characteristics
Diuretic is not only the ability to kept potassium but also magnesium and belongs to the group of aldosterone antagonists. «Spironolactone» acts by this mechanism: it increases excretion of sodium and chloride and reduces the excretion of magnesium, calcium and potassium. The medication is assigned individually solely the specialist. Most often used for edema, daily dosage is 100 to 200 mg, intake of which should be divided into 2-3 times. The course of treatment lasts from 2 to 3 weeks, after which it must stop for 10 days, and if you want to continue.
Use «Spironolactone» and when hyperaldosteronism (a syndrome in which the adrenal cortex secretes more aldosterone than you need to maintain normal sodium-potassium balance) in a dosage of 300 mg. This dosage is prescribed in situations when the patient was diagnosed with hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia (low concentration of calcium with magnesium in the blood). Allowed to drink «Spironolactone» for pregnant women, but only those whose duration of pregnancy for more than 3 months, and nursing mothers, but not to forget that a small proportion of the active component of the diuretic will be in milk.
Tablets, in contrast to the «Spironolactone», aldosteronoma act on receptors selectively and absolutely do not cause effects on steroid hormones, so have much less side effects. Effects on the body comes quite a long time — diuretic effect from taking the drug in the form of pressure reduction is noticeable only after 2 weeks of use. «Eplerenone» often becomes the cause of increasing the amount of cholesterol and the beginning of a dry cough. Not prescribed the drug to lower the pressure if the patient is diabetic, has an individual intolerance of separate components of the funds, as well as kidney or liver failure. Is strictly prohibited the use of «Eplerenone» during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
The main active ingredient acts as diuretic pills triamterene. The action «Creamasia» is soft, so the drug belongs to the group of lung diuretics and prescribed in conjunction with other drugs for the treatment of hypertension, congestion of a different sort, the lack of urine in the bladder, a low content of calcium in the blood plasma and hypokalemia. Names and dosage of auxiliary diuretics can be prescribed only by specialist, based on whether the patient has other diseases. Despite the fact that the drug is easy, he acts quickly enough — diuretic effect starts after 15 to 20 minutes after application and lasts about 12 hours. Doctors recommend eating «Triamtezid» after a meal and drink plenty of water in the treatment process.
You should not take remedy to patients suffering from renal insufficiency, low content of sodium ions in the blood, urolithiasis, and increased amounts of potassium in the blood plasma (in this case drink kaliwavodaschimi diuretics). Do not appoint «Triamtezid» and pregnant women because there is a likelihood of serious abnormalities in the fetus.
Pills «Verospiron» refers to antagonists of aldosterone, as the main active component is the spironolactone. When resistant hypertension is recommended to take 50-100 mg diuretic 1 per day. In cases where the patient has edema due to chronic heart failure, it is necessary to use 100-200 mg diuretic per day in combination with other types of diuretics. You should not drink «Verospiron» during pregnancy and lactation. If you still want to use «Verospiron» exists, it is important to finish breastfeeding.