Gonorrheal urethritis in men and women: treatment
The process of inflammation within the wall of the urethra is called urethritis. Depending on the causes, it may be gonorrheal urethritis, viral urethritis, Trichomonas urethritis or fungal. Gonorrheal urethritis is very dangerous, and it needs to be treated. The inflammatory process extends not only to sexual and other internal organs.
The description of the disease
This disease is considered as a sexually transmitted disease is purulent urogenital infection caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, it is one of the most dangerous and most common diseases transmitted during unprotected sex. In rare cases, the cause of the infection becomes contact with household items (washcloths, towels, linen), where the pathogen is able to support life for up to 24 hours, also possible transmission of infection from mother to child during childbirth.
Infection goes like this: the virus of gonorrhea is of the mucous membrane of the urethra, there is justified, and proceeds to the gradual destruction of the mucous membrane. This microbe not only destroys the mucosal epithelium, but also changes its appearance, resulting in the development of abnormalities of these tissues. Appears inflammation that can spread to tissue under the epithelium and mucosa. The gonococcus prepares the way to the back of the urethra.
The result of the harmful actions Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the pus from tissue breakdown products, which often has a greenish, grayish or yellowish tint. The progression of gonorrheal urethritis begins after 3-5 days after infection. The diversity of this disease lies in the fact that the gonococci penetrate everywhere, and not only do they breed, but remain in the body for a long period of time in order that after a certain period of time to restore a detrimental effect on the human body.
Causes gonococcal urethritis
In most cases, the development of gonococcal urethritis is caused by infection with venereal diseases, which, as already mentioned, helps the main way of infection — sexual contact. The factors that contribute to the development of gonococcal urethritis include:
- the decrease in the protective forces of the body due to serious diseases;
- starvation and malnutrition, vitamin deficiency and other causes;
- failure to follow the basics of personal hygiene;
- the presence of foci of inflammation in the body;
- stress, poor nutrition, lack of vitamins in the body;
- other concomitant diseases;
- medical manipulations;
- genital injuries;
- the abuse of alcohol, intake of drugs.
Forms and symptoms
Forms and symptoms of gonococcal urethritis will differ depending on the sex of the person and form of the disease. The main symptoms of this disease are discharge (in the form of pus or mucus) from the urethra and discomfort in her, painful urination. In the chronic form of gonorrheal urethritis for sluggish, without a strong pain, but at this time, the microbes continue to destroy the mucous membrane.
Symptoms in men
When «fresh» gonococcal urethritis, there are 3 degrees, which determine the intensity of the symptoms:
- acute degree — present discharge from the urethra in large numbers with sharp dysuria;
- subacute stage — discharge from the urethra in the same amount, but voiding is practically no;
- slow degree the symptoms are invisible, discharge from the urethra can be detected only by chance.
In the chronic stage for gonococcal urethritis in men, reminiscent of the slow degree, but with worsening symptoms similar acute and subacute extent «fresh» gonococcal urethritis. Immediately after infection microbes move through the urethra inactive, not having the skill to move independently. The inflammation typically spreads through the cervical canal to a smaller or larger area. In each of these situations, the inflammation covers only the spongy area of the urethra to the external sphincter (anterior gonorrheal urethritis). But sometimes the inflammation spreads all over the area of the urethra up to the entrance into the bladder (posterior gonorrheal urethritis).
The first signs of the disease in men include painful symptoms in the urethra during a long detention emission of urine, then there are a selection, at first yellowish-grey, then highlight with a yellowish pus. In the first portion of urine appear whitish thread, the next portion of urine clean. At the beginning of urination is felt stabbing pain that immediately disappears. That the gonococci have moved over the external sphincter, say painful when the end of the process of urination, accompanied by pain ejaculation.
Symptoms in women
Given the peculiarities of the female anatomy, even in the acute form the disease causes of acute pain. This is the fact that the majority of women, patients with gonorrhea, do not seek medical attention. Selection for the most part minimal. In addition, gonococcal urethritis in the female is an infection with multiple lesions that can be in several places at the same time.
In adult healthy women vagina and sexual organs and not often defeat. In most cases, these changes occur in women in the body which is a restructuring of hormones (immature girls or women in menopause). Women have found a rising gonorrhea affecting the upper division of the genitourinary system, and gonorrhea bottom of the genitourinary system. Symptoms:
- Secondary disease often is the basis of growth vestibulitis and vulvitis. It makes itself known by discharge with pus from the urethra and vagina, which cause erosions and hyperemia and irritation of the mucous membrane. In addition, in the area of the genitals, there are painful sensations (itching, burning).
- Bartholinitis occurs in the case of penetration of gonococci in large paired gland of the vestibule of the vagina, the symptoms depend on the extent of damage. If the infection is stopped at the entrance of the canal, its surface will be noticeable reddish stain. If inflamed, the entire duct cancer it will be similar to a tumor and can be sensed, when pressed, will begin to stand out pus.
- If the infection reaches the uterus, it becomes inflamed mucous (endometritis). Symptoms are cramping pain, fever, problems with the menstrual cycle.
Complications and consequences
The main danger appears most likely dispersion gonorrheal urethritis in the neighboring regions of the urogenital system. Complications in the female consist in an inflammation of the bladder (cystitis) and pyelonephritis. In contact with the secretions on the threshold of the entrance part of the female genital organs a high probability of infection and the development of vaginitis, adnexitis and other diseases.
Complications in men lead to the dissipation of inflammation on the prostate gland that leads to the formation of prostatitis also affects the VAS deferens with the formation inflammation of the spermatic cord, the bladder and kidneys. To very unpleasant complications in the male include the contraction of the urethra due to scarring of the coating region of the mucosa. This process causes disorders of urine, which in turn, creates favorable circumstances for infection, and the discharge of urine in the kidneys with the development of pyelonephritis.
Given the presence of overt symptoms, especially in men (pain in the emission of urine, pus), to diagnose urethritis does not cause difficulties. Conducted microscopy research and survey to identify sexual partners that could infect. Problems in diagnosis arise from the fact that the disease rarely occurs in isolation. Quite often gonococcal urethritis develops together with chlamydia, Trichomonas, Candida infections and other. When mixing multiple infections to recognize the disease becomes more difficult, because changing the course of the disease, its forms and symptoms, incubation period and possible complications can occur in a more acute form.
In some cases, the disease can be detected only when a concomitant disease. There are quick tests that can be used at home in case of emergency. They look like pregnancy tests and have a similar working principle: 1 bar — no infection, 2 infection is present. But to rely on the results of such tests is not worth it, and full confidence should undergo a full medical examination. Sometimes illnesses, sexually transmitted, occur without pronounced symptoms. In this case, you should listen to your feelings and to go to the doctor, because time started therapy provides a rapid recovery without complications.
The treatment of the disease
Therapy of gonococcal urethritis-doctors-venereologists. In the ideal case to start the treatment should from the first days of infection or during an exacerbation. In the overflow of the disease in the stage timeline, the effectiveness of therapy is not reduced, but the possible complications. In the system of successful treatment of gonococcal urethritis is possible to distinguish several principles:
- Before beginning medical treatment should undergo detailed laboratory and clinical examinations, this will help identify the presence of ongoing disease. Simultaneous therapy will accelerate the recovery.
- Treatment should cover 3 areas: the causes of disease, mechanisms of development and individual symptoms.
- The appointments must take into account age and gender, complications and the course of the disease, a way of life.
- The implementation of the recommendations of the doctor, the rejection of physical activity and sex life will accelerate the healing process.
At any stage in the scheme of treatment included antibiotics, often prefer such as «Penicillin», «Erythromycin», «Chloramphenicol» and other. The choice of a particular drug is associated with the presence of allergic reactions to a particular active substance and presence of comorbidities. In the second case, the possible concurrent administration of several antibiotics. An important part of treatment is immunotherapy, because the absence of the body’s own strength gives the infection to grow faster. After treatment, the immunity to the disease appears, so the infection is able to occur again.
The prognosis of the disease
In exactly the same way as with many other diseases, early initiation of treatment provides a complete cure from gonococcal urethritis without any consequences. In case of untimely beginning of treatment there are 2 possible outcomes: illness becomes chronic or the time required for a full recovery, will increase several times. The chronic form, as delayed treatment can lead to complications. The failure to treat the disease there is a high probability of occurrence of epididymitis, chronic prostatitis and vesiculitis. The result of these diseases are impotence and infertility.