Diuretics: how to take, mechanism of action, indications for use
Diuretics or diuretics — substances that have different chemical structure, but have a common property. The diuretic effect is a diuretic effect on the human body, its ability to accelerate blood filtration, to withdraw fluid from the body. This therapy is good for hypertension, helps to relieve swelling, and prevent the development of other diseases. What is diuretic and what is dangerous and useful are they?
Mechanism of action
The main mechanism of action is effects of drugs on the kidney, the nephron and all the processes. The principle of one — stimulation of the kidneys to produce more urine. Diuretics lead to slower absorption of salts, water, accelerate the formation and output of urine, reduce the level of fluid in the body. Diuretics relieve swelling, cleanse the body and normalize the acid-alkaline balance. Clinical pharmacology of diuretics are as follows. Lowering blood pressure is due to the fact that decreasing the sodium concentration and pressure on the blood vessels. Their properties relax the bile duct and artery.
How and what to take?
This files most often prescribed in combination with other drugs that lower blood pressure. For the appropriate use of diuretics will need to follow the rules and to control some parameters:
- the amount of fluid per day;
- to measure the pressure twice a day;
- to measure body mass, volume of the stomach and shins.
These data are necessary for the doctor to adjust the dosage of the drug. With the appearance of nausea, dizziness, need to inform the doctor. To take diuretics need to follow some recommendations:
- To follow a diet low in sodium and salt.
- Take medications that contain potassium, or replace them with foods that are rich in potassium.
- When kalisberegauschee treatment is necessary, conversely, to avoid foods with potassium.
- Not to use sleeping pills and alcohol, which can provoke complications.
Types of drugs
Diuretics are prescribed based on the disease, how are they different mechanism of action. Types: thiazide, potassium-sparing, loop and osmotic. Thiazide diuretics used in the treatment of hypertension because they are excellent lowers blood pressure. The dosage is small, because the thiazide diuretic effect on the metabolism. The use of diuretics in combination allows to achieve maximum effect with minimum side effects on health. The pharmacokinetics of drugs as loop diuretics. Thiazides are secreted in the lumen of the nephron in the proximal kanalze.
Kalisberegate promote the conclusion of chlorides and sodium from the body, but decrease the excretion of potassium. They operate near the distal tubules, where the exchange of sodium and potassium ions. Fairly weak class of diuretics, it means they are inferior to others in strength and speed of reaction. Used with diuretics, which eliminates the magnesium and calcium to reduce losses of ions. The action of loop diuretics occurs in the loop of Henle. The diuretic properties of this group: an increase in blood flow in the kidneys, the excretion of magnesium and calcium, glomerular filtration, reduce venous tone and increase urine output.
Indications for use of diuretics osmotic groups: glaucoma, swelling of organs, peritonitis, cases where no urine is formed. In addition, used for poisoning and overdoses. Treat potent, administered intravenously, because they are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The best intravenous diuretic in this group, «Monitor». There are other diuretics that are not part of any of these groups, but still exhibiting diuretic effect.
Types of diuretics on the effectiveness of
For the efficiency of leaching of sodium hypotensive diuretics are:
- Potent — loop, increase the leaching of 5-25%.
- Moderately active — thiazide increases the excretion of 5-10%.
- Weak-acting or quick — potassium-sparing, osmotic, increase the output of sodium by 5%.
Indications for use
Diuretics are prescribed for hypertension, cardiac and renal failure, in cardiac edema, glaucoma, cirrhosis. Studies have shown that the hypotensive effect inherent in most of the diuretics that are available in the pharmacy. Prevention of hypertension are tiazidopodobnye diuretics, in addition, they reduce the risk of stroke. In high doses and systematically taking thiazides is not recommended to avoid hypokalemia. Manual will allow you to understand what indications of a drug, among the diuretics are those that are contraindicated under reduced pressure. Diuretic therapy may be active at moderate doses, and supports in permanent employment.
Diuretics for hypertension
Hypertension, is prescribed drugs to reduce blood volume to reduce the load on the heart and increased resistance of the vascular walls. In the treatment of hypertension using diuretic beta-blocker, thus enhances the effectiveness of the drugs. Often used «Nifedipine» because it has no effect on metabolism. Daily «Nifedipine» lowers blood pressure and has a protective function for the internal organs. «Nifedipine» goes well with different groups of drugs: beta blockers, ACE inhibitors.
Edema is a problem for many people. This is the initial symptom of the negative processes that occur in the body. The swollen limbs indicate stagnation. When renal impairment appears swelling of the face. Unilateral edema is rare and is associated with the CNS. Diuretic withdrawn liquid and have a therapeutic effect on the entire body. When taking prescribed diuretics and a diet that promotes rapid disappearance of symptoms.
Diuretics in renal failure
Diuretics and kidneys have always been closely linked. So, renal failure and nephritis diuretics relieve swelling, remove excess water. When mild symptoms recommended natural diuretics: celery, carrots, strawberries, cucumbers, beets. Among the synthetic is the most effective «Aldactone», «Britomar», «Hydrochlorothiazide», «Diver», «Furosemide». In chronic renal failure are prescribed a loop medications. Tiazidove diuretics in chronic renal failure are used less because they are less effective. Other classes of diuretics are contraindicated because they increase the risk of complications. Urolithiasis prescribed therapy based on the origin of the stones:
- the stones of salts of potassium, calcium or phosphate cure kalisberegauschee diuretics;
- oxalate thiazide withdraw education funds;
- stones of uric acid will cure dill, strawberries.
Heart failure and pressure problems
In heart failure in the body retained fluid, formed by the stagnation of blood in the lungs. Tiazidnye agents have an antispasmodic effect on vascular walls. One of the best in the treatment of heart problems called «Captopril». «Captopril» effective for the prevention of complications as diuretics and beta-blockers.
Diuretic for weight loss
For quick weight loss many people use diuretics, because diuretics do help to reduce weight. From the body excreted a lot of fluid, reducing weight, but body fat remains. Along with toxins the body loses vital ions. And severe dehydration affects the skin and appearance. The disturbance of ion balance leads to disruptions in heart rhythm, weakness, reduction of vision. So to lose weight using diuretics must be very careful not to harm your health. Many believe that weight loss need exercise, which is much more useful than medicines.
The modern drugs are effective, their maximum use is possible with proper use and compliance with recommendations. The attending doctor, knowing all the symptoms and characteristics of the disease, will be able to assign the most effective diuretic. Among the strong and effective diuretic medicines called «Bumetanide», «Xipamide», «Mannitol», «Urea», «Piratenet», «Torasemid», «Furosemide», ethacrynic acid. The lungs are the «Amiloride», «Diacarb», «Spironolactone», «Triamterene». Do not forget that harmless diuretic drug is a myth, every treatment has side effects, so during therapy you need to follow the dosage and the duration of the course.
Diuretics are not only synthetic. An alternative to chemical drugs, traditional medicine offers. Nature gave us a wide variety of herbs, the healing power which enriches the body with vitamins and outputs the liquid. One of the main advantages of natural water — availability and price. Pharmacy has many products with a diuretic effect, but not everyone can afford them. With heart problems use strawberries, birch leaves.
Inflammation of the urinary tract will help bilberry, tansy and shepherd’s purse. In folk medicine knows many recipes for edema with the use of birch leaves, rose hips, flax. When taking diuretics decoctions make a break and after a few days start accepting. Pronounced diuretic effect have carrots, green onions, grapes, melon, celery, cucumber, dried fruits. The list «drugs» to be harmless to human health.
Side effects from taking can occur when a wrong appointment or the wrong combination. Diuretics can cause:
- hyperglycemia — a spike in blood sugar;
- the lowering of platelets in the blood;
- the weakening of sexual function;
Side effects and contraindications
Before treatment it is necessary to examine the indications and contraindications, and side effects of diuretics. The human body for normal functioning of the required liquid. When it is excessive accumulation of diuretic therapy is inevitable, but abuse of this will lead to dehydration. Dehydration disrupts the functioning of the heart and other internal organs.
Loop diuretic along with an excess of liquid is withdrawn and potassium, reduced level of which leads to the human heartbeat, numbness and tingling in the extremities, fatigue and nervousness, muscle spasms. In addition, studies have shown that loop diuretics lead to loss of hearing due to the effect on the nerve endings in the ears. Symptoms of ototoxicity are dizziness and ringing in the ears. Thiazide diuretics, the skin becomes sensitive to the sun, the characteristic redness, burning, itching, and rash. Reception tiazidov, increases uric acid in the blood, which can lead to acute gout. Undeniable side effect is the addiction of the kidneys to the fact that there is a constant stimulation of the process of removing fluid. Accordingly, the kidneys gradually atrophy and cease to work independently. Therefore, without the need of administration of diuretics is better to abstain.