Classification and stage of bladder tumors: lifetime
Malignancy in the urinary bladder is a serious and life-threatening disease. In medicine there are 4 stages of bladder cancer, each of which is characterized by special forms. There is also a classification of bladder cancer according to the TNM system by which physicians determine what stage of cancer remains the disease and the characteristics of the deviation. Therapeutic measures are assigned after determining the stage of the disease.
Classification of cancer types
Cancer industry distinguishes such types of bladder cancer:
- squamous cell tumor;
- transitional cell malignancy.
The latter type is diagnosed frequently and is characterized by the differentiation and proliferation of healthy cells, which create the wall of the bladder. For this reason cancer is called transitional. Squamous cell cancer is associated with changes thin and flat cells as a result of prolonged inflammatory process or frequent irritation of the bladder walls. Adenocarcinoma is a rare disease in which the changes affect the glandular cells.
For macroscopic type distinguish a cancer:
- Papillary, in which the tumor is villi located on a broad stalk. Such education often affects the neck or the bottom of the internal organ, the orifice of the ureter. This marked necrosis, polymorphism of the tissues and disturbance of cell structure.
- Solid, in turn, is subdivided into exophytic and endophytic education. In the first case there is a lumpy growth that extends into the interior of the bladder. Top education is covered by a purulent membrane. Endophytic subspecies there has been a rapid growth and affects, in most cases, the bottom and the neck of the body.
Given the depth of destruction of the walls of the body, secrete non-invasive and invasive or infiltrative bladder cancer. When non-invasive or superficial cancer is injured only mucosal and submucosal layers of the body. In such cases the chances of survival much greater. If diagnosed invasive education, then the probability of escape is extremely low. This is because cancer cells reach the muscle of the internal organ, and therewith, greatly complicated therapy.
The stage of the tumor in the bladder
Medicine most popular cancer is classified by stages. At the zero stage of the pathological process just begun. This step is characterized by the malignant entity, is an accumulation of atypical cells, which can at any time to acquire a malignant character. Special signs of the disease at this stage is not observed. For today in medicine developed such methods of diagnosis that detect the zero stage of cancer of the bladder. This allows you to get rid of the disease almost painlessly with the help of transurethral cauterization. If timely diagnosed with a disease and taken remedial measures, the chances of recovery are quite favorable, and recurrence is extremely small.
The first stage
For the first stage is characterized by the emergence of education in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the bladder. On the surrounding tissue until the cancer is spreading and has not metastasized. For stage 1 cancer in humans does not occur discomfort and distinctive signs of the disease. Only in rare cases, there are such symptoms:
- spotting when urinating;
- the excretion of urine with a delay;
- painful when mochevyvodjashie.
Due to the lack of pronounced symptoms, to detect cancer in the first stage is almost impossible. If a person is fortunate enough to diagnose the disease at early stages, the therapy, in which doctors try to maintain domestic authority. Often carried out transurethral resection, in which the use of the cystoscope or resectoscope. A malignant mass is removed in this way:
- traditional resection;
- the laser ablation.
The prognosis for survival of patients with bladder cancer 1st stage is quite high. For statistics 8 out of 10 patients live more than 5 years after surgical therapy.
Stage 2 cancer
Bladder cancer stage 2 is marked by the transition of education in the invasive type and germination of the cells in the muscles. In turn, the disease at this stage is subdivided into stage 2A and 2 V. In the first case cancers managed to penetrate muscle, but not expanded on. If diagnosed In substage 2, it suggests that a malignant tumor entirely through the muscular layer of the bladder.
During this period, special signs of cancer are absent, and there is no metastases. Timely detection of the second stage is amenable to treatment by surgery. Often physicians are able to eliminate the cancer by using a radical method. In most cases, resection is carried out, in which partially remove the damaged bladder. When the complications shows the complete removal of the organ to save the patient’s life. This surgery is called cystectomy. After carrying out of surgical treatment 60% of patients survive 5 years or more.
Cancer in the urinary system is the stagnation of urine, which you want to recover in the postoperative period. Shown such procedures to establish normal excretion of urine:
- Installation of plastic receiver, through which urine will come out.
- Transplantation of the ureter into the intestinal region.
- The formation of part of the intestine, body which will serve instead of the bladder.
Plastic bag, which is located outside, is used in extremely rare cases, as the alternative excretion of urine causes discomfort to the patient. Not all patients are able to go out and live normally with such a device. The most popular method of recovery mocheotdelenia — insertion of ureters into the intestine.
Stage 3 of the disease
The penultimate stage is marked by the germination of cancer cells in internal organs that are located near the bladder. Men notice discomfort in the prostate gland, and women complain of unpleasant sensations in the uterus or vagina. At this stage, there are bright signs that are a danger to health and life of man. There are signs of cancer:
- pain in the bladder;
- blood in urine;
- impaired urination;
- stagnant processes.
Cells cancer formation are found in the circulatory system, cancer spreads to nearby lymph nodes.
For this stage it is not uncommon rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder, which is traumatic for the striated muscle of the internal organ. Deviation characteristic of the children under 5 years of age and older people with disease of urinary system. The patient with this type of cancer complains of pain during elimination of urine, enlarged and painful lymph nodes, lack of appetite. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rapidly progressing and moves to the ovaries, liver, the digestive tract.
Treatment of bladder cancer 3rd stage is chosen based on the General condition of the patient and the present symptoms. At this stage, the operations aimed at removal of the bladder, adjacent organs and tissues, usually do not bring the desired effect. Such procedures are used only as maintenance therapy. In this case, there is a high probability of human death, because many organs of the urogenital system ceased to function normally. To survive with 3rd stage cancer manages only 30% of patients.
Life expectancy in stage 4 of cancer
Patients who have bladder cancer stage 4 are quite disappointing forecasts. With this course to save a life is practically impossible. This is because cancer cells have spread too far and damage all the internal organs. In this case, therapy does not bring any results. Doctors take medical treatments that aim to partially eliminate severe symptoms.
For the 4th stage of cancer are characterized by damage to the urogenital system, metastases are present in the kidneys, liver, and bones. The patient has renal insufficiency, disturbed digestion, the lymph nodes swelling are formed. The person complains of severe pain, which may resolve only with the help of strong narcotic analgesics. With these symptoms cancer life expectancy is extremely low — less than 8% of patients live longer than 5 years.
Classification of cancer by the TNM system
To determine the presence and stage of bladder cancer is capable of many diagnostic methods. In medicine often use the international TNM system, which is able to evaluate different options. The acronym stands for the following:
- the index T indicates the size of the malignancy;
- N — gives information about the extent to which corrupt the lymph nodes nearby;
- Latin letter M indicates the presence of metastasis.
Each category has several subcategories, which are numbered from 0 to 4. Thus, physicians can more informative to display a specific category. To obtain information on the category T, the doctor will go through computer and magnetic resonance tomography. Shall further biopsy to help to determine how deeply infiltrated cancer cells.
The indicators of this system are as follows:
|T — size cancers||The N — status of lymph nodes located near||M — existing metastases|
In most cases, patients with a diagnosis of t0 are not in need of therapeutic activities and live a long life, because metastasis is practically not observed. Bladder cancer stages 1-4 require a thorough diagnosis and needs therapy. Early detection of the disease can significantly increase the duration of life.