Bladder cancer in women: symptoms, treatment, stages
Cancer are not uncommon for women and men, but cancer of the bladder in women is much rarer. In young women cancer is almost not diagnosed in most cases at risk are women aged 40 to 60 years.
The main reasons
Bladder cancer is characterized by the appearance and active growth of malignant cells, which are located in the mucous of the body. Women because of the particular structure of the urinary system bladder cancer is not often concerned both men. But the manifestation of adverse factors, the female body is also affects the cancer. The most common causes of bladder cancer in women:
- Prolonged Smoking, which injured the internal organs. This is due to the fact that the decay of tobacco, the toxic products output from mochevyvodjashie way.
- Frequent contact with chemicals that adversely affect the bladder wall. At risk are hairdressers, workers of chemical production.
- Improper diet, which is dominated by fatty, fried, spicy food.
- Radiation exposure in most cases lead to malignant tumors.
- Malfunctions of the urinary system, which gradually lead to the development of cancer. Women who have chronic cystitis, or shistosomiasis internal on the probability to get cancer increases significantly.
After ascertaining as accurately as possible the cause of the formation of cancer in humans, doctors will be able to find a more effective treatment that will negatively affect the development of cancer cells in the bladder.
Types and classification
Cancer of the internal organ is divided into different types and stages, depending on which there are different signs of bladder cancer. Depending on the extent of the lesion, distinguish invasive and superficial (non-invasive) cancer. Invasive cancer is traumatic for most of the interior of the body and penetrates into the deeper layers. If diagnosed with invasive cancer, it is possible the rapid spread of cancer to the neighboring organs. In the case of non-invasive cancer, malignant cells are distributed exclusively to the mucous membrane of the bladder.
With the development of cancer of the bladder is divided into such stages:
- At the initial stage, the pathology is marked by the penetration of tumors in the mucous membrane of the bladder.
- In the second stage, the malignant cells injure the muscular layer of the internal organ.
- The third phase of disease is characterized by the germination of cancer in the fat layer of the bladder wall.
- Bladder cancer grade 4. there is a complete lesion of the internal body and the increase of cancer cells on abdominal wall, organs of the reproductive system and the bones of the pelvis. Women at this stage develops cancer of the vagina or the uterus.
The first signs
When bladder cancer in the early stages the particular symptoms are not manifested. You may experience a General feeling unwell woman. Then gradually appear different malignancy. The main of them are spotting when urinating. While women may not pain, but the blood will always be present and may increase in number. This is due to the fact that the tumor is actively growing and bleeding. Features of hematuria for bladder cancer:
- Even the small size of the tumor is able to rapidly bleed, and most may not be accompanied by krovoisliania when urinating. This fact sometimes makes it difficult to make an accurate diagnosis.
- Blood clots can have different sizes and shapes. Sometimes blood clots fill the internal body fully and lead to blockage of the bladder, and creates an inability to excretion of urine.
- Bleeding have different color — from pink to deep red. But, in any case, these allocations are not similar to menstrual.
Cancer often in women, causes dysuria, which disrupted the process of rochevilaine. Due to the growing tumor compressed by the urethra, which causes pain and stagnation of urine. The first time the unpleasant sensations are located in the pubic area. Gradually the pain extended to the area of the perineum and vagina.
Bladder cancer in women mainly accompanied by incontinence of urine or frequent mochevyvodjashie. The patient complains of a constant urge to urinate, which is not accompanied by discharge of urine. Sometimes observed an uncontrollable excretion of urine. These first signs are observed in case the location of the malignancy in the cervix internal organ.
The next common symptom of a malignant tumor in the bladder is an unpleasant smell of urine. This indicates that the tumor began to decay, and the particles began to leave with the urine. Urine sick woman gets an unpleasant smell of ammonia. Upon delivery of the urine analysis detected a residue or purulent discharge.
The symptoms of progressive cancer
Symptoms of bladder cancer in women maximum begin to manifest in the later stages, when the tumor began to grow. The first time, the woman does not complain of suspicious symptoms, until can not see blood admixtures in urine. Gradually appear these symptoms:
- constant fatigue;
- the high temperature for long time;
- lack of appetite;
- swelling of the lower extremities;
- spasserovannye in the groin area;
- painful excretion of urine.
Symptoms in women are manifested in a different order every day. This indicates active growth of education and its distribution on the neighboring internal organs mochepolovoi the system.
Pain in the suprapubic region
Pain in the suprapubic region appear in the case when the tumor grows and exerts pressure on the surrounding tissue. When damage occurs paravesical fiber, the woman feels pain in organ, buttocks, sacrum and hips. Through a period of tenderness in the suprapubic region becomes unbearable and it is impossible to eliminate the strong painkillers.
Secondary diseases and complications
On the background of malignant tumors may develop secondary pathologies and complications:
- Renal failure in the chronic form, in which it is noted itchy skin, lethargy and dry mucous membranes.
- Violated the outflow lymph occurs when the metastasis in the lymph nodes. The woman in this case, swollen lower extremity.
- Fistula in the rectum or in the suprapubic region lead to necrosis of the internal tissues.
- Gidroenergeticheskiy renal transformation in which there is impaired outflow of urine.
Comprehensive diagnosis of bladder cancer is a significant point because it allows you to explore the tumor, its nature, structure, localization and other related information. To diagnose malignancy in the bladder actually with the help of laboratory and instrumental methods such as:
- Urinalysis for cancer.
- Blood for General analysis and biochemical.
- Cytology determines the nature of malignant cells.
- Zitostaticescoe survey focuses on the diagnosis of the mucous membrane of the internal organ. In diagnostic procedure, the physician uses the endoscope. When zitostaticescoe conduct the study, then take a small piece to biopsy.
- Transabdominal ultrasound is able to identify nodes in the bladder, which have a diameter of 0.5 cm and more.
- To identify a malignant tumor, which was localized in the neck of the bladder, prescribe a transrectal scan.
- Radiography and computed tomography. Using these diagnostic methods found hyperfixation of the radiopharmaceutical in the bladder, which indicates a high level of metabolic activity.
- More recently, doctors have developed a test that allows you to quickly identify cancer. It acts similarly to a pregnancy test, but is not so popular. The diagnostic method still is under development.
- When the tumor villous surface, the woman is assigned pyelography, which is carried out with the use of contrast agents. In the process of diagnosis to determine the condition of the internal organ and urinary tract.
Treatment: the main methods
When choosing methods of treatment, takes into account physiological feature of the individual patient, his age, pre-existing diagnoses. Particularly important is the stage of cancer, and whether there is metastasis, which greatly complicates the treatment of bladder cancer. In the initial phases, the disease is easily treated and, in most cases, recurrence has been observed. When you have a complex for the treatment of cancer shown with the help of such methods:
- conservative therapy;
- radiation therapy;
- targeted and immunotherapy;
Treatment of bladder cancer superficial (non-invasive) type of the most easy, because in this period the disease spread exclusively in the epithelial tissue of the internal organ. Only in some cases, therapy may be complicated due to minor injury to the muscle layer. Cancer of this type can influence the following curative measures:
- Transurethral resection (TUR of the internal organ) is used as in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer body.
- To protect yourself from relapse by BCG vaccination, which the woman administered into the bladder inside.
- After the Tour shown regular checkups with an oncologist, in order to detect the appearance of education.
- In case of recurrent superficial cancer, doctors prescribe more effective method of getting rid of the disease — cystectomy. The woman carried out the surgery, during which removed an internal organ. Instead, form the «artificial» organ from the bowel segment. Thus, it is possible to avoid the occurrence of complications and increase survival.
Invasive cancer in women
Invasive cancer in women is characterized by growth of tumor in the muscle layers of the organ and spread beyond the bladder. In this regard, the treatment becomes much more complicated and difficult to predict the outcome of treatment. If the therapy is assigned to the manifestations of metastases, then the outcome is more favorable. Treat invasive type of cancer in these ways:
- Holding cystectomy with lymph node dissection, which removes an internal organ and nearby lymph nodes.
- Application Round the bladder.
- In more severe cases, showing an open resection of the internal organ.
- If you have any metastases or surgical treatment is unacceptable then chemotherapy.
With this deviation patient has distant metastases, which give the lungs, liver and bones. In this case, shown aggressive chemotherapy, carried out with the use of not one but several mediums. The most often used «Methotrexate», «Vinblastine», «Doxorubicin». The effects of these drugs negatively affects the General state of health, so there may be side effects.
Is it possible to cure cancer folk remedies?
A malignant tumor is not always possible to cure with the use of modern medical techniques, so folk remedies for cancer are used only to relieve the unpleasant symptoms and facilitate overall health. With the advice of a doctor possible to use such popular recipes in the period after surgery:
- The use of infusion of juniper with white wine (per 100 grams of herbs with 2 liters of wine). To give a means to infuse for 2 weeks, then take three times a day for 50 grams.
- The use of garlic in any form juice, added to the food. This product helps to reduce the spread of malignant cells.
- Tincture, prepared on the basis of aspen bark, burdock root, Wintergreen and clover. Used ready tincture 3-4 times a day.
Prognosis and life expectancy
Prognosis and life expectancy for women with bladder cancer depends on many factors. First and foremost, it is important to consider at what stage remains a malignant disease. At an early stage are more likely to survive. It is also clear that in adolescents the body stronger and they are easier to transfer malignancy in the bladder than women in old age. But don’t despair, because with modern medicine cancer is curable even in advanced stages.
Patients with the initial phase of developing cancer in 85% live more than 5 years, if timely treated. In the second stage the percentage of a successful outcome is reduced to 68 mi. In the spread of malignant cells into the deep layers of on the probability of recovery is 55%. And only the manifestation of metastatic disease, to hope for a favorable outcome, the least possible disability.
Prevention of bladder cancer in women
Because the reasons for which arises tumor of the bladder in women, it is still not clear, then prophylaxis is recommended to conduct a correct way of life. It is important to eat a balanced, do not abuse alcohol and Smoking, exercise. To avoid interaction with harmful chemicals.