Bladder cancer in men: survival, surgery, symptoms
Among all the organs of the urogenital system of the male body, the bladder is often exposed to any losses. Bladder cancer in men is caused by the growth of foreign cells in an unnatural pace. Treatable it is quite easy, it requires only the early detection of pathology.
Bladder cancer — pathology associated with the development of malignant tumors on the walls of the body. The development of the pathology starts in the layer of epithelium which lines the body inside. As a rule, to detect the tumor can until its germination in the muscle layer. In addition to bladder, metastases of malignant tumors can invade other organs. It is therefore very important, immediately after the discovery of the tumors to start the treatment.
Malignant tumors of the bladder — disease of the elderly. Among all cases of cancer, malignancy of the bladder occupies the 5 position. And there was a sharp fall in the incidence of gender-based characteristics. In men, it occurs 4 times more often than women. The average age of the the incidence of cancer is 60 years, but every year this boundary increases.
Depending on what cells are affected by the tumor, the disease is divided into the following types:
- Malignant transitional cell class. 90% of all diseases have on him.
- Tumor of the squamous class. The frequency of occurrence is second. The main reason for the development of chronic cystitis.
- Adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, carcinoma and others are rare, but to completely eliminate them at diagnosis is not recommended.
The causes and factors
To identify the main reasons that cause the development of cancer cells, scientists and doctors are still working. To date the factors that increase the risk of developing cancer. They are as follows:
- Smoking. This habit is on the first place among the factors predisposing to the development of malignant tumors. Cigarette smoke contains many chemicals that recycling ends up in the urine. Thus, they affect the mucous layer of the bladder.
- Industrial harm. Excessive use of chemicals: dye, solvent, aniline, and others.
- Chronic diseases of the urinary tract: cystitis, shistosomes, urolithiasis.
- Radiotherapy. The radioactive irradiation in the treatment of pelvic organs can cause the growth of malignant cells in the bladder.
- Heredity. This is not a major factor, but eliminating it completely is impossible. Hereditary transmission of genes can create genetic predisposition to malignant disease.
The stage of the disease
From the depths of malignancy depends on the development stage of bladder cancer:
- Zero stage. At this stage, the cancer cells can be detected directly in the bubble, penetration of the body wall yet. The Outlook is positive the treatment is 100% with timely diagnosis and elimination of predisposing factors.
- Stage 1. The lesions affect the mucosa. Symptoms may be absent. Cells grow at a rapid pace. With early diagnosis the chances of recovery are large.
- Stage 2. The malignant tumor goes into the muscle layer, but a complete germination yet. The chance of recovery is about 60%. There are two phases of development phase 2:
- 2A. Affected inner layer of the muscle cells grow within them.
- 2. Affects the external muscle layer.
- Stage 3. Occurs ingrowth into the surface layer and affected the fatty sheath. The probability to stop the growth of cancer cells in 20%. Allocate 2 podstawie:
- 3A. Cancer cells grow in the surface layer, but they can only be detected under a microscope.
- 3 V. the Tumor can be seen on the outer wall of the body.
- Stage 4. The last severe stage. The tumor involves adjacent organs, germinate in the lymph nodes, affects pelvic bones. The patient appears severe pain, blood in the urine. To achieve a positive result in the defeat of the internal organs is impossible. Treatment is aimed at relief of the patient.
From bladder cancer 1st stage, characteristic symptoms may be absent. An important aspect of this situation is the person listening to your feelings. Any changes in daily processes are important (eg, discomfort during urination) and become a basis of instrumental diagnostics.
In the case when cancer is first stage of development, appear specific and nonspecific symptoms of bladder cancer. To specific (local) symptoms include:
- pain when emptying the bladder;
- the feeling of a full bladder (though not entirely empty);
- pain on palpation of the abdomen;
- blood in the urine.
- lack of energy;
- weight loss (especially over a short period of time).
Diagnosis of bladder cancer in men
Because the symptoms in the initial stages of development may be absent, if there is any changes in overall health, you must consult a doctor. First place in the diagnosis is laboratory and instrumental methods. Diagnosis of bladder cancer is impossible without the following procedures:
- The General analysis of urine. Checks for the presence of blood, leukocytes and protein, which indicates inflammation.
- Biochemical analysis of blood for tumor markers.
- Cytology of urine. With the aid of a microscope urine is tested for the presence of cancer cells.
- Ultrasound. The fastest and easiest method of research. It is used in the primary and re-examination. This method allows us to examine the localization of tumors on the surface walls of the body and inside.
- Cytoscape. Study the inner surface of the body is an effective method for diagnosis and further treatment. Through the urethra introduced cystoscope into the bladder. At the end of the device attached to the camera, which shows a clear picture of what is happening. Upon detection of tumors, the material is taken for biopsy.
- Biopsy. Histological study of the tissues of the bladder. The method allows high accuracy to confirm (refute) the diagnosis and establish the type of cancer.
- CT. X-ray radiation is made to scan fully investigated organs.
Integrated use of diagnostic methods provides the maximum information necessary for diagnosis and treatment.
If after the diagnosis was confirmed the localization of cancer cells in the mucosa, the lesion is considered superficial. Then the treatment of bladder cancer in men is invasive method. Conservative treatment is carried out at 0 and 1 stages of the disease, as long as you have not manifested the characteristic symptoms. Conservative treatment includes: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy.
Before this method of conservative treatment was considered ineffective, and was conducted only as an auxiliary. In recent times there have been about 15 chemotherapeutic agents that have a positive effect («Cisplatin», «Adriamycin», «Vinblastin» and others). Drugs are administered directly into the body, the lymphatic system, and intraarterial. Intravesical chemotherapy is used after surgery. Note the high risk of side effects.
As a standalone treatment, it is used very rarely. Radiation therapy for bladder cancer is used in case of failure of the operation. Much less frequently it is used as a preventive measure. After radiotherapy, the tumor decreases in size, easier to carry out surgery.
Used intracavitary introduction of immunomodulators: BCG vaccine and «Interferon». Effective in the early stages of the disease. The absence of the resumption of development of a pathology after the therapy is 70%. The higher the stage of disease, the lower the effectiveness of therapy. Immunotherapy is contraindicated in patients with any active form of tuberculosis.
Trihopol in the treatment of cancer
This integrated method is based on a biochemical theory of cancer, which is examined by scientists all over the world. It States that cancer cells are caused by fungi «Trichomonas». During treatment specialists pay attention to the tumor, but no one does a fungal infection. Scientists believe that the use of the medicine «Trichopolum» along with created in the body acidic environment, will help to get rid of cancer cells.
Such treatment can be attributed, most likely, to traditional medicine. Doctors proved that this drug does not cure fungal diseases. And multiple studies have shown that cancer cells are mutated native cells of the body. We conclude that the use of metronidazole in the treatment of malignant tumors is inefficient.
As a rule, therapy of malignant tumors, which emerged in the body wall, its mucosa approach a complex. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. What is surgery for gall bladder removal in males depends on the degree of development of malignant process. In modern medical practice uses the following types of operations:
- Transurethral resection of the. Used with small size of tumors. Affected area of the body is removed, the surrounding tissue prizhivayutsya laser.
- A partial cystectomy. With progressive disease, but in the absence of metastasis is used remove a portion of the body along with the affected area.
- Radical cystectomy. Assumes a deep resection of the tissue. If the operation is applied when it is detected metastases in bladder or the disease started. The operation is complex, the probability of massive blood loss.
- Reconstruction. Is the complete removal of the bladder. The task of the doctors after removal of the bladder for cancer is to create a natural drainage of urine: artificial reservoir, urostomy.
Kind of surgery on the bladder is selected, depends on the diagnosis. So that no time is lost, it must be timely.
Rehabilitation and the postoperative period
After the operation the patient was transferred to ICU. To the patient connected medical equipment to monitor his condition. The patient requires thorough care. Drugs in the postoperative period relieve the unpleasant sensation of pain. Back to eating and drinking is possible after recovery of the intestine. The next day after surgery the patient it is desirable to start up to avoid pneumonia and the formation of blood clots.
5 days after surgery come the results of histology and the doctor selects the appropriate treatment. Before discharge the patient attributed the pain meds, antibiotics and a preventive measure against constipation. A few weeks after the treatment the patient is re-examined, confirming the absence of recurrence.
Diet: the main recommendations
Diet for bladder cancer affects not only the course of the disease, but also can affect recovery. The human body must obtain all the necessary vitamins, minerals to support life. A specially created diet for bladder cancer reduces the growth of tumors. In hospitals with oncologists, surgeons and nutritionists collaborate in helping the patient to establish a proper diet.
After surgery few days patient shows only intravenous injection. The lips moistened with a wet cotton swab, and you can drink only two days. After 3 days the patient can be offered dietary requirements: low-fat cottage cheese, chicken broth. Only after 5-6 days the diet is introduced diet meat, steamed. After 1,5−2 weeks the patient may return to the diet that was observed before the operation.
Food with chemicals and radiation therapy
Effect on the body radiation, and strong medications negatively affect appetite. The main task of power in this period consists in choosing a variety of foods, retaining flavor. Lean meat, foods with a high content of iron and b vitamins — play an important role in the hematopoietic system and protective functions of the body. That they emphasis.
Disturbed intestinal flora will help to maintain milk products with bifidobacteria. During radiation therapy it is better to abandon the gross product. To include in the diet vegetable and butter, useful protein. This will increase the calories and rejuvenate in anemia. Definitely drinking juices, vitamin complexes.
A major factor influencing the re-emergence of malignant neoplasms, is the stage of the disease. The incidence of recurrence is large enough. If the operation was conducted without follow-up chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the likelihood of re-growth of cancer cells occurs in the first 12 months. A major percentage of recurrence of the disease falls in the first 5 years after treatment.
Prognosis and survival
Life expectancy with this disease depends on the rate of growth of tumors inside wall of the bladder, development of metastases and the destruction of their internal organs. In case of advanced disease patients live much less five years than patients with initial stage. Survival rates in the first 5 years are shown in the table joxi.ru/BA0WbRZTDgDv2y
Survival in the last stages for bladder cancer is much higher than with other oncological pathologies.
The most effective way to prevent disease — avoidance influence on the organism of substances that provoke the development of cancer cells. For example, non-humans, the disease develops in 3-4 times less. Long-term effect on the body chemical compounds increases the risk of cancer cells. Only a healthy lifestyle will help prevent unwanted effects, because drugs that reduce the risk of cancer in a healthy person is not invented.