Bladder cancer in men and women: treatment, symptoms
In the case of pathological changes of epithelial cells of the mucosa, the doctors diagnosed a tumor of the bladder. When the disease, an increase in the number of cells, a pathological process characterized by changes in their composition. Neoplasms in the bladder are benign or malignant nature. If there is a malignant tumor of the bladder, the cells in which changes have occurred, penetrate into the submucosa. Gradually, the disease progresses and harms the entire bladder wall. Doctors noticed that the tumor of the bladder in men, is diagnosed more often than women.
Benign and their classification
Bladder tumors benign character appear on the walls of the internal organ and the neck. In medicine, there is the classification of bladder tumors into epithelial and non-epithelial. Benign lead to polyps, adenomas, pheochromocytomas, and papillomas. The above formations are characterized by epithelial nature. Such a tumor in the bladder is endowed with the ability to degenerate into malignant.
There are non-epithelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Often there are bladder tumors, called sarcomas, which provoke lymphogenous and hematogenous metastases at the initial stages. All other education non-malignant character, as a rule, do not cause metastases and does not injure the neighborhood located tissue. After the patient has removed the formation, metastasis does not occur.
Polyps of the bladder
In the formation of polyps in the bladder connective tissue cells grow with defects. They attach to the mucosa of the body with small feet. Polyps similar to a mushroom. Foot formation is directed into the cavity of majevica. Often the disease makes itself felt, and no obvious signs of the formation of a polyp.
The pathology found in the majority of cases when conducting the ultrasound examination. Only in the case of education in the region of the ureter or in the presence of tumor urethral pathology. The first sign of a polyp in this area is considered a violation of excretion of urine — delays the outflow. During urination changed the direction of the jet and its spray. Changes the color of urine, it becomes pinkish, and sometimes red. It is associated with destruction of the posterior wall of the bladder cavity and bleeding. The patient complains of pain during the urine selection.
Papilloma — a benign tumor the surface of which is rough. This education has a pink color and the texture is soft. In medicine distinguish between multiple and solitary papilloma. They differ in the tendency to recurrence. When re-invasion into the bladder, seen their modification. If you experience atypical papillomas doctors talk about early stage malignancy.
At the initial stage of this pathology does not manifest itself. In the same way as polyps, makes itself felt in the later stages. On the background of HPV often develop cystitis, especially in women. A patient complains about problem in urination, noticed the delay in the outflow. Upon delivery of the urine to the laboratory for testing in the tests found the blood.
Prostate adenoma in men
Adenoma of the bladder or prostatic hyperplasia is common in men. The disease is characterized by the growth of tissues of the prostate and the formation of these tumors and knotty tumors. Due to the fact that prostate part of the urethra, in the case of increasing the education it presses on the bladder and makes it difficult to mochevyvodjashie. Often adenoma caused by hormonal failure, which is observed in men of age. After 50 years increases the likelihood of getting sick. Pathology in young men is practically not observed.
Extremely rare pheochromocytoma affects the bladder wall. As a rule, the pathology observed in the adrenal glands or in other organs. Education consists of cells, which are part of the chromaffin tissue. When you see the formation of this species occurs excessive secretion of catecholamines. Pathology in the inner body leads to bouts during urination. During the excretion of urine pain do not exist, but there is blood.
Endometriosis the tumor jeopardizes the bladder wall. The structure of this tumor consists of small cysts that protrude into the luminal area of the internal body. Endometriosis is related to hormonal metaplasia, in the case when the body in a large amount of estrogen and lack of progesterone.
The doctors reveal the growth of the tumor endometriodnoy for single and multiple type.
Bladder tumor in women of this type is more common than in men. Most often associated with the menstrual cycle. This tumor tends to grow and injure the surrounding tissue and organs. Often endometriosis a tumor develops into a malignancy in the bladder. It is therefore essential to identify the pathology and to remove the mass.
Fibroma of the bladder
The fibroid is small and has a spherical shape. Often education is similar to the ellipse pinkish color. As the tumor grows, it changes its color. The cause of fibroids is an uncontrolled multiplication of cells. Education not has an effect and does not cause the person anxiety. If necessary, it can be easily removed surgically.
Leiomyoma of the bladder is very rare and is characterized by the formation of non-malignant nature in the structure of smooth muscles. The result of the pathological process, weakens the immune system, disturbances occur in the bladder and neighboring organs. In most cases, the patient observed the pain when urinating. To treat leiomyoma it is recommended that operative therapy.
Hemangioma of the internal organ is a tumor located in the blood vessels of a reddish-blue hue. As a rule, this pathology was congenital and able to very quickly progress, if the hemangioma is not promptly addressed. The presence of this formation indicates bleeding from the urethra.
For non-epithelial neoplasms include fibroids internal organ. The composition of fibroids includes the cells of different tissues. Provisions are mainly of fibrous and connective tissue. Often this education grows to considerable size. Fibromyoma is rare and has the shape of a ball. Structure formation of soft and present feet. Another non-epithelial tumor is a neuroma, which resembles a ball. Lesion of the bladder has a bumpy surface and it is composed of accessory cells of nervous tissue.
The types of tumours of the urinary bladder
Malignant tumors are characterized by the fact that the resulting cells can penetrate into other layers of the body and not be located only on the surface. When you cover the whole body there are metastases, which are difficult to treat. Tumor of malignant character often diagnosed in men. Depending on the type of pathology prescribe special therapy.
Given the morphological components are divided into cancer pathology perekhodnocletocny, squamous type and adenocarcinoma. The first type is the most common. In pathology there is a modification of the cells of the body and their further expansion. When squamous cell carcinoma is the lesion of epithelial cells. Cause of pathology is protracted inflammatory processes. In the case of adenocarcinoma are observed mutational processes of cells as a result of the permanent stagnation of secretions of the glands.
Subdivide cancers of the internal organ based on the form of the disease. There is a solid and papillary pathology. Solid cancer is exophytic and endophytic. When exophytic tumors arise hilly education, and in the case of endophytic pathology education structure is flat. Papillary carcinoma is commonly observed and is characterized by the growth of papillomas that have acquired a malignant character. Mainly localized around the bladder neck or in the bottom.
In medicine distinguish bladder cancer highly differentiated and nizkotemperaturnogo of view, it all depends on the deformation of education.
Given the depth of injury to the mucosa of the internal organ, klassificeret cancer at invasive and non-invasive. The first kind injures the internal structure of majevica and extends to the neighbouring organs. For superficial or non-invasive cancer pathology is not transferred to other organs and cause mucosa and submucosa.
The main reasons
Medicine still not able to completely explore all the possible causes of tumors in the body. Often the pathology occurs due to prolonged stagnation of urine in the inner body. Because of the large number it of different substances, the urothelium is transformed into malignant. It is important to resolve reasons why occur stagnant processes, it may be due to cystitis, inflammation of, stricture of the urethra and other pathologies. The onset of tumors is preceded by other reasons:
- The presence of urinary schistosomiasis, in which the body is affected by parasitic infection. In the bladder it causes inflammation, which eventually leads to ulcers and tissue fibrosis.
- Malicious work, in which a person works with phthalates, phenols and tools, aimed at the treatment units. So, the disease is often diagnosed in artists, drivers, workers in the chemical sector.
- The abuse of tobacco products. It is proven that people who smoke, suffer by the deviation three times more often than nonsmokers. This is due to the carcinogens included in a cigarette, and then excreted through urinary system. Urine with these harmful substances enters mocevic and damages the wall.
Often the cause of bladder tumors is the use of poor quality water for drinking. The liquid, which contains a large quantity of chlorine, increases the chance of the occurrence of pathology. Physicians are inclined to the view that disease is preceded by a papillomavirus infectious disorder.
The symptoms in women and men
Signs of bladder tumors in both sexes do not differ. In the early stages of almost all kinds of diseases do not make themselves felt, and occur in a latent form, therefore, is found later. First and foremost, the patient observed bleeding of impurities in urine. At this symptom, few people pay attention and adds value, though this is the first «bell» indicating the tumor. There are symptoms:
- the development of hematuria, the urine becomes red;
- the delay of urine;
- a decrease in hemoglobin;
- pain when urinating;
- ulcer formation on the walls of the internal organ due to the collapse of the tumor;
- the formation of fistulas because of sprouting formation in the intestine;
- high temperature for long time;
- swollen lymph nodes located in the pelvic area.
When metastasis to other organs there are symptoms violations of their functions.
If the tumor is not removed, and it continues to grow, the patient having severe pain in the groin, perineum, sacrum. First, they arise from the filled bladder, and subsequently become permanent. Pathology hinders the excretion of urine and causes a buildup in the kidneys, which causes for the occurrence of renal colic. The disease is dangerous to human life, because it does not always resulting seal mistaken for cancer disease and do not take timely action.
Diagnosis of bladder tumors involves instrumental and laboratory tests. The patient is prescribed to pass urine and blood biochemistry, to determine the trend. Be made ultrasound of internal organs of the pelvis. Assigned passage cystoscopy, in which the body inspected using an endoscope. The patient performed a CT scan of the kidneys and intravenous urography. It should also pass zistografii that details will point out existing damage to the body.
Treatment of bladder tumors is conservative methods aimed at improving the immune system and eliminate the formation. Medications injected directly into the internal body. Conservative treatment of tumors drugs include chemotherapeutic effects and antibiotics. The patient undergoes intracavitary immunotherapy, which includes the BCG vaccine directed against the tumor. This procedure is contraindicated in patients who had had tuberculosis, or hematuria. In this case, carried out surgical treatment.
Surgery to remove the education
Surgery to remove bladder tumors is aimed at the complete elimination of education. In medicine practiced several types of surgery. Transurethral resection is carried out using a cystoscope. This operation is suitable only in the case when the tumor has not penetrated the submucosa. Laser and electrocoagulation is carried out upon detection of papilloma of the small size. Radical cystectomy is prescribed in the final stages with a significant spread of education. Such operations remove an internal organ. With any therapy the patient is assigned uroseptic funds, which reduce inflammation and have a positive effect on urodynamics. Prognosis and survival depend on when treatment is started and at what stage the pathology.
Prognosis and prevention
The disease is considered quite dangerous, it is not surprising that patients are concerned about the issues: what is the forecast of how many patients live with a tumor? Survival and longevity is directly linked to a form of education. Non-invasive tumors with timely treatment and prevention provide a good chance for recovery. If the detected metastases, it is quite difficult to predict the situation. These patients are on the account at the oncologist and regular tests, because there is a likelihood of recurrence.
In order to avoid pathologies it is necessary to observe preventive measures. It is recommended to follow the daily rate of the receiving water and promptly emptied mocevic. Avoid or minimize work with malicious means. It is extremely important to follow a proper diet and eat fresh fruits and vegetables. It is much easier to prevent swelling than to be treated.