Fungal infections, treatment fungal infection nails onychomycosis
Fungal infections are a group of pathologies that involve infected skin, nails, hair, eye, ear, throat, nose, and genital pathogenic fungi. The main manifestations of this disease include itching, peeling, changes in the structure of the skin on the hands. A similar disease is highly contagious and significantly impair quality of life. Sometimes even develops the total defeat of the body by fungi.
Causes of fungal infection
Most often, the infection by fungi takes place in public areas – basins or baths. The infection usually enters into the human body by contact, which often leads to the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms on the hands. Fungi thrive in a moist environment. Moreover, infected with athlete’s foot or onychomycosis can be when walking on the floor barefoot.
There are also additional conditions that significantly increase the threat of infection – this includes cracks on the skin and high sweating. Infection by fungi sometimes occurs during sexual intercourse.
The probability of infection increase if the following factors:
- stressful situation;
- the use of antibiotics;
- chronic disease;
- poor nutrition.
The types of fungal infections
Diseases are subdivided depending on the type of pathogen.
- Candida infections – when this happens the fungus infection of the genus Candida. Infection usually happens through sexual contact and leads to the development of vaginal yeast infections.
- Trihofitii – there is a loss of the skin, mucous membranes, can develop onychomycosis.
- Cryptococcosis – in this case, the fungus attacks the internal organs and lungs.
- Aspergillosis is an infectious lung disease that develops as a result of the weakening of the immune system.
There is a classification and the location of the infection.
- Surface of the infection during the infection affects the skin of the hands or feet, and mucous membranes, but infection does not fall in the internal organs.
- Systemic infection – in this case in the first place is the infection of internal organs and the spread of microorganisms from the blood. Usually systemic fungal infections are a consequence of immunodeficiency.
Fungal infection of the eye
It is frequently observed fungal conjunctivitis, where the conjunctiva of the eye are striking in fungi. The disease usually occurs in abortive form, and therefore amenable to diagnosis with great difficulty.
The most common type of fungal eye is actinomycosis, which is caused by the fungi-actinomycetes. Also can develop such eye diseases as candidiasis, aspergillosis, and sporotrichosis.
Usually fungal infections of the eye are the result of endogenous or exogenous factors. The disease develops when the eye contact and fungal spores or from contamination of human and animal. Risk factors include taking antibiotics, a warm and humid climate, trauma to the eye. Also increase the likelihood of Contracting poor living conditions which lead to the decrease of body resistance, contact lenses, surgery on the cornea.
For the treatment used fungistatic or fungicidal agents. Equally important are eye drops. As additional funds are used antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antihistamines.
Fungal ear infection
Often fungal microorganisms settle in the ear and cause atomikos. This state is characterized by a feeling of stuffiness in the ear, dizziness, headaches. Often there is itching also in which the ear is itchy inside. In addition, the disease is necessarily accompanied by the appearance of discharge – green, brown, yellow or black. Often this is accompanied by loss of an ear Allergy.
For the treatment of fungal infections of the ear requires specific medicines, which must appoint a physician. In any case, you cannot use a hot compress – this will only increase the growth of fungi in the ear. In order for treatment to be effective, you need to regularly visit an otolaryngologist, who must examine the affected ear.
Fungal throat infection
The faringomikoza occurs in about one in twenty patients with inflammation in the throat.
Most often, these diseases are caused by a yeast-like fungi. The development of this disease of the throat is the result of a traumatic injury. It also can cause inflammation of the throat or tonsils.
For this disease characterized by itching and dryness in the throat, General malaise, may experience headaches and a high temperature. Also, the throat appears white or yellowish cheesy plaque. For the treatment of diseases, prescribe internal and topical preparations against fungi.
The symptoms of fungal infections
Signs of the disease depend directly on the localization of infection. At a superficial pathologies fungal infection has mostly local manifestations:
- redness is the main symptom that confirms the presence of inflammation;
- itching is quite common and especially at night, can be felt on the hands, genitals, nose or ear;
- violation of hair growth is a symptom of ringworm;
- exfoliation is the development of fungal organisms on the skin of the hands or feet is the cause of reactive hyperkeratosis, which leads to sloughing of dead cells;
- thickening and deformation of the fungal infection of the fingernails or toenails, or onychomycosis, is usually accompanied by such manifestations;
- white patches on the mucous membranes – can be observed in the throat, nose, genitals.
If we are talking about systemic infections, it all depends on the affected organs:
- cough – occurs in lesions of the lungs;
- kidney failure;
- the disruption of the heart;
- fever – occur if the fungus enters the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body.
To identify fungal infections and choose an effective treatment, you need to conduct a number of studies and pass certain tests:
- History taking, examination and clarification of complaints. This is a relevant method in the case of onychomycosis, which develop on the hands or feet, and other superficial infections.
- Microscopy of the material. This analysis allows to detect attacks candidiasis and to identify specific cells that have an oval shape. Used in the development of fungal infections of the throat, genitals, etc.
- Luminous glow. Hovering light in place, affected by fungus, you can see the bluish glare. The effectiveness of this analysis is that present in the skin cells of the mycelium.
- Polymerase chain reaction. This analysis could identify genes specific for fungal infection.
- The cultivation of crops. In this study, the fungi are placed in a special environment, to assess their sensitivity to drugs.
To identify systemic fungal infection, apply the following tests:
- chest x-ray;
- computed tomography;
- ultrasound examination;
- serological method.
Due to the detailed diagnosis, you can make an accurate diagnosis and choose the most effective method of treatment of fungal infection.
The main method of treatment of fungal infection is considered a causal treatment, the purpose of which is the destruction of the fungus. For this purpose apply various antimycotic drugs:
- local funds – used to treat superficial infections in the form of lotions and ointments;
- means for systemic therapy – used in the form of solutions for intravenous injection and tablets.
Pathogenetic therapy is used to eliminate systemic infections and includes the following components:
- detoxification treatment is used to reduce the amount of toxins in the blood;
- immunomodulatory therapy is the need for such treatment is that fungal infections are usually accompanied by weakening of the immune system;
- treatment to restore functioning of diseased organs with the means to improve the performance of the heart or kidneys.
Fungal infections are fairly common and affect different organs and systems. Fungi can develop in the eyes, the nose, the ear. Quite often they appear on the hands and genitals. In addition, there is often fungal infections of the vagina.
To the treatment of the disease was effective, with the appearance of its symptoms should consult a doctor. As auxiliary methods, you can use folk remedies.