Pregnancy and HPV in women: treatment of HPV
The danger of HPV during pregnancy and its treatment
About 80 % of the population infected by human papillomavirus infection (HPV). There are about a hundred types of this virus. Many of them cause the appearance of papillomas on the skin, but some affect the mucous membranes. HPV during pregnancy is dangerous because when the infection is on the mucous genital tract infection of the child during birth. In the future, such a baby may develop laryngeal papillomatosis, leading to suffocation. The most dangerous are 16, 11, 6 and 18 of the virus variants that cause genital warts and have a high oncogenicity.
- What is the danger of HPV?
- Effect on conception
- Effect on pregnancy
What is the danger of HPV?
Papillomavirus 18 and 16 species leads to the appearance of flat warts. This tumors that do not protrude above the surface of healthy epithelium and have a high risk of malignant transformation. Most cases flat warts are localized in the region of the vaginal mucosa and epithelium of the uterine cervix.
Pregnancy and HPV of these two types represent a dangerous combination because of the risk of infection for the baby, which subsequently may lead to papillomatosis of the respiratory system. When infected with HPV 16 varieties of pregnant women are warned about the need for caesarean delivery.
In the case when during pregnancy will be discovered flat warts, which provoke the viruses 16 and 18 types, their deletion is not possible because modern methods of excision of papillomas and warts is contraindicated in this period.
However, if they are identified at the planning stage of pregnancy, it necessarily follows removal (laser therapy, electrocautery, cryosurgery, surgical removal) and subsequent therapy. Only after treatment of HPV, a woman can easily get pregnant.
Important! The risk of infection of the child during intrauterine life is completely excluded, because HPV does not penetrate into the blood.
Effect on conception
Threat HPV and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, because it can cause sterility (especially if you have cervical cancer – cervical cancer). Even if she can get pregnant, the chances of a successful pregnancy and normal childbirth are significantly reduced.
In the presence of such infection in the body before conception is necessary to take a swab for Cytology. If the results indicate the presence of changes in the epithelial cells of the cervix, necessarily treatment.
Effect on pregnancy
Pregnancy with HPV is not dangerous, because the infection does not penetrate to the fetus and does not affect its development. Moreover, there is no reliable evidence that infection during pregnancy leads to premature birth, miscarriage or malformations of the fetus.
The most dangerous human papillomavirus during pregnancy is infection of strains 6 and 11 varieties. They lead to the formation of genital warts (anogenital warts), representing growths like blossoms of cauliflower.
If before conception the virus was already in the body, the immune system of a pregnant woman has managed to adapt to the infection and produce antibodies. They will be passed to the baby during intrauterine life, and he will be protected from Contracting such a disease the first six months of life. That is why papilloma during pregnancy, is no longer considered a reason to conduct a caesarean section.
During gestation to identify the presence of infection in the pregnant woman’s body is only important from the point of view of oncogenic strains of the virus. For this purpose:
- the typing of the virus to determine its genotype;
- determines the duration of stay of the infection in the cervical canal;
- reveal the intensity of viral load;
- as well as the degree of integration of infection in the cells of the epidermis.
Important! The detection of oncogenic strains of the virus is necessarily performed cytological examination. If there is dysplasia of the epithelium of the cervical canal, shows a biopsy with subsequent histological examination.
Risk factors for malignant course of the disease may include the following:
- if the woman is more than 35 years;
- there are other cervical pathology;
- was previously diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection;
- a lot of sexual partners;
- early sexual initiation;
- immunodeficiency States;
- frequent change of partners.
Attention! The disease is important to distinguish from molluscum contagiosum, intradermal of nevius, seborrheic keratosis, micropapillae labia.
Because the removal of tumors while carrying the baby contraindicated, conducted conservative treatment. Different medicines help to remove papillomas on the skin, but not mucous membranes. Moreover, their use is contraindicated during pregnancy.
If a pregnant revealed perianal warts small genital or outdoor education, drug therapy is not carried out. Surgical treatment is indicated in severe degree of cervical lesion and extensive genital warts.
In the presence of multiple or large warts in the genital area indicated a cesarean section for the purpose of prevention of laryngeal papillomatosis in the just-born children. As to the infection with oncogenic strains of HPV, then there are no special indications for the management of pregnancy and childbirth.
Since HPV leads to a decrease in local immunity, he may develop other genital infections in pregnant women, for example, thrush, genital herpes, etc. due to the fact that some infections can be dangerous for the unborn baby, the woman is prescribed immunomodulatory agent for strengthening the immune system. Topically you can use various ointments, candles and creams to prevent infections of the vagina and external genitalia.
It is important to know that the only reliable prevention is the HPV vaccination of girls, carried out at an early age before sexual life.