Mucus in the smear in women of homogeneous type and the norm of leukocytes

The presence of mucus smear in women and normal smear

Women’s consultation includes a gynecological examination, the taking of urogenital smear. If found mucus in the smear – this is the starting point for a more detailed laboratory diagnosis. Healthy microflora contains several groups of bacteria, but is dominated by lactobacilli. The normal result of the study implies a concentration of lactobacilli to 95% and 5% are other microorganisms. Consider the detailed transcript of the study of the smear.

  • Key cells
  • Leukocytes
  • Gardnerella
  • Leptothrix
  • In preparation for the examination
  • Smear on flora: how to decode it?
  • What diseases reveals smear?
  • What are the rules of the smear on the flora?

Key cells

Normal vaginal microflora amalgamate a small amount of pathogenic microbes. These include the fungi family Candida, Gardnerella, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and other microorganisms. Their content is controlled by lactobacilli, not allowing to reproduce.

Worth knowing: the key cell is a squamous epithelium, which focuses on the surface of various microbes.

When the number of key cells talking about the imbalance in the body. Against this background always reduced content of lactic acid bacteria. The mucosa is lined with epithelial tissue, its cells sustain the right environment, which is detrimental to pathogenic bacteria.

If transformirovalsya acidic environment in alkaline, then there is a transformation of the squamous cells. The surface «covered» by the germs, as a result, identify key cells in the analyses. In some pictures it signals the violation of the balance. But sometimes the etiology is due to cancer disease, erosive changes in the mucous membrane, etc. reasons.

Leukocytes

White blood cells help protect the human body from negative external and internal impacts. Cells help protect against bacteria, viruses, infections, and other dangerous agents. Leucocytes in a smear are specified in the ratio. Normally, they should be from 0 to 10. By increasing their content doctor suspects inflammation or infection in women.

Why if the disease is their number growing? The fact that white blood cells help protect the body from harmful effects. If in some area there is pathogenic activity, the cells «get» to the place through the capillaries and vessels.

They help to destroy the harmful agents, but are killed themselves. In the destruction of other substances are released that attract new cells. Therefore, the abnormal process their number increases significantly.

Gardnerella

Of Gardnerella refers to the optional group of anaerobic bacteria contributes to the formation of capsules and spores on the surface of the epithelium is characterized by good adhesion. Actively multiplies in the vaginal environment, highlighting the products of the activity of amino acids.

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In turn, amino acids are released volatile amines – compounds that give the vaginal discharge unusual color and odor.

Worth knowing: the dominant symptom of gardnerellosis are the key cells. The so-called Mature epithelial cells on the surface fixed many coccobacilli and grammarically sticks of Gardnerella, mobiluncus etc.

Leptothrix

This term includes gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. In appearance, the germ is like a long thread. In 90% of clinical pictures bacteria found in women, in men, is almost never diagnosed.

By themselves, leptotrichia not a danger to women’s health. However, they often «settle» with other microorganisms that are transmitted sexually, resulting in diagnosed chlamydia or trichomoniasis.

Often, leptothrix diagnosed in women who suffer from diffuse infection, bacterial or candidiasis, gardnerellosis. The microbe in high concentration is found not only in the scraping of flora, but also in the analysis of urine.

In preparation for the examination

Microflora in the smear for various indicators of the vaginal environment is able to talk about hidden diseases. To exclude false results to the study are recommended to prepare carefully. Scraping is taken sooner than three days after the critical days, as blood cells can distort the results.

Features of training:

  • To exclude sex;
  • Not douche, because douching washes away biological material;
  • Three days before the study to eliminate the use of suppositories, vaginal tablets, creams, etc.

I can’t do the scraping, if the patient takes antibiotics or other strong medicines. Taking them expelled for two weeks. In situation, if this is not possible, you must report the use of certain medications your doctor.

The night before the survey you need to conduct hygiene with soap and water. In the morning not to wash inside the vagina. Before visiting the gynecologist is not recommended to go to the toilet. If the analysis takes a public institution, the patient is required to bring a diaper and shoes. In private clinics it is not necessary, there all is.

Sometimes you may need a second survey if the first results are in doubt to the doctor. This usually occurs in cases where a rule has been broken preparation.

Smear on flora: how to decode it?

The obtained results represent the Latin and Russian letters, digits. Of course, to understand the common man, what does that abbreviation or other, is quite difficult. The numbers in the smear indicate the amount of epithelium, leukocytes, lactobacilli, etc.

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Decipher the letters and numbers:

  • «V» indicates that scraping was carried out with the vaginal walls. The numbers located next to the letters show what kind of microflora was detected.
  • «C» — a swab of the cervical canal. The numbers tell the doctor that discovered a laboratory study. All the deviation that is opposite to the letters indicate changes in the cervix.
  • «U» — the scraping of the urethra. All indicators tell your doctor about changes in this area.
  • «L» is the white blood cells. The results are always written in abbreviated form to save space on the form.
  • «EP» — the epithelium. In some cases, technicians can write «squamous epithelium» or specify «square EP».
  • «Abs» is a Latin abbreviation, speaking about the lack of a parameter. For example, if next to the word «Trichomonas» is this reduction, this means that infectious agents are not detected.
  • «gn» — gonorrhea, cause of gonorrhea. Analyze form can write in different ways. Some write all the gonococci, the other only reduction.
  • «trich» is Trichomonas. If there is «abs», this indicates that everything is in order.
  • «Cocci» — stands for coccal infection.
  • Should know: C.+ or gr.- indicate the identity of the microbe to a particular group of pathogens. We are talking about gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. They have different structures, so identifying their affiliation allows you to select the desired medication.

    What diseases reveals smear?

    1-2 days after collection of the biological material, the patient may visit a medical specialist to see the results. Upon detection of key cells, you can identify the following diseases:

    • Polyps are benign growths of the glandular tissue of the mucous membrane of the uterus. Causes due to hormonal imbalance on the background of various inflammatory processes in the urogenital system;
    • Erosive changes of the mucosa involves converting sheath of the penis. In other words – it’s an open wound that appears to penetrate by various pathogenic microorganisms;
    • Chlamydia – a group of infectious processes, characterized by acute or chronic course, caused by the intracellular parasite called chlamydia;
    • Gonorrhea is an infectious sexually transmitted disease that is transmitted during unprotected sexual intercourse. Is caused by gonococci. In the advanced form the disease can affect internal organs – liver, kidneys, brain. The lack of treatment increases the likelihood of a gonococcal sepsis that leads to death;
    • Cancerous degeneration. An abnormal number of certain indicators in a smear on flora indicates oncological diseases.
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    If the structure in the smear is not homogeneous (uniform), a timely study reveals ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis, mycoplasmosis and other diseases that require adequate conservative treatment.

    What are the rules of the smear on the flora?

    Based on many years of medical practice and various studies in gynecology allocate certain standards that must be met for the results of laboratory diagnosis.

    Decoding result and the following standards:

  • The concentration of lactobacilli varies from 85-95%. Ideally, their numbers should be close to 95%.
  • The presence of mucus smear from a woman in moderations inside the vagina – this is normal. The increase suggesting inflammation or infection.
  • Microscopic examination of leukocytes should be present not more than 10 in the cervical canal, vagina and urethra – 5.
  • Normal erythrocytes do not exist. If found, this indicates internal bleeding or violation of the integrity of the mucosa.
  • A sign of a healthy flora is the presence of squamous epithelium up to 15 cells.
  • The concentration of bifidobacteria in the 7 to 10 degree.
  • Gram-positive germs in the analysis are allowed if present in small quantities.
  • Gram-negative bacteria should be present.
  • In a normal analysis can be fungal spores, but not mycelium; no atypical cells are referred to normal; in the urethra and the cervical channel sticks should not be detected.

    Examination of a scraping of flora allows for early detection of infectious and inflammatory processes, to diagnose sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer pathology in women. Visit to the gynecologist and tests – the key to women’s health.

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