Methotrexate — instructions for use of tablets

Methotrexate — composition and release form

Drug Methotrexate belongs to the pharmacological group of anticancer drugs. As shown by reviews of Methotrexate used in the complex therapy in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors. Widely used in Oncology drug pills Methotrexate contraindicated self-treatment and require regimens only by the doctor.

  • Pharmacological effect and release form
  • Instructions for use, the drug
  • Side effects
  • Method of application and doses
  • Counterparts, and testimonials

Pharmacological effect and release form

The active ingredient of the drug has the property of suppressing the intracellular enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, serving as a catalyst digidrofolieva acid tetragidrofolievu. The latter is necessary for the synthesis of nucleotide bases derivative, which is the main genetic material of the cell nucleus. The process is aimed at reducing the activity of cell division, which slows the formation and growth of tumors. Special efficacy of Methotrexate observed in the treatment bystroley cells, which include cancer and other tumor cell structure.

After ingestion, the drug quickly and without the rest absorbed into the systemic circulation. The efficiency of the process is affected by the presence of food in the intestine and the amount of medication.

Well distributed in body tissues, the drug accumulates in the kidneys, liver, spleen, where it can persist for a long time. The drug has practically no effect on the Central nervous system, a barrier to penetration which is the blood-brain barrier. The main metabolism occurs in the liver, active and inactive breakdown products come naturally with urine. Depending on the dose, the complete withdrawal of Methotrexate from the body is 2-15 hours.

Methotrexate tablets has a round shape and white or slightly yellowish. Packaging 50 pieces in a bottle, 10 pack mesh contour. Patients who are assigned to injections, Methotrexate is discharged in a liquid form – ampoules with a ready composition for injection.

Instructions for use, the drug

In any drug is embedded instructions for use, where specified indications and contraindications for use. Indications for treatment with Methotrexate are due to the presence in the body of the patient pathological processes, burdened by the proliferation of cell structure:

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lipoma is the growth of the tumor in the bone marrow lesions of the cells of the lymphoid hematopoiesis.
  • Education trophoblastic order that occurs in pregnant women during the period of carrying a child.
  • Severe psoriasis – a chronic degenerative skin disease of the autoimmune type.
  • Arthritis rheumatoid – type inflammation of the joints autoimmune order. In this case, Methotrexate is prescribed in case of lack of effectiveness of other treatment methods.
  • Important! In the presence of severe forms of athlete’s foot, burdened with chronic diseases, is also assigned Methotrexate, instruction manual strongly recommends to follow the dosage and not exceed the norms of the drug received.

    Contraindications to the drug are the following factors:

    • Individual intolerance of the drug components;
    • Pathology hematological problems: himplasia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia;
    • Chronic renal, hepatic failure;
    • Acute infectious pathology, burdened by reduced activity of the immune system.
    • Syndrome primary and secondary immune deficiency;
    • Pregnancy in any trimester of pregnancy;
    • Lactation;
    • The patient’s age up to 3 years.

    Important! Extreme caution is assigned to Methotrexate in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, duodenal ulcers (ulcer), pleural effusion, gout, dehydration and ulcerative colitis. Due to the fact that the drug has an overwhelming effect on cell division and is metabolized in the liver, the tool is not assigned to any liver disease, including ascites of any shape.

    Before taking pills or injections, you should consult with a doctor and make sure there are no contraindications. In the composition of the preparation contains:

  • Base material Methotrexate in an amount of 2.5 mg;
  • Excipients: sugar, potato starch, talc, calcium stearate, crospovidone, povidone.
  • Coated tablet contains: sugar, hydroxycarbonate hydrate of magnesium, wheat flour, povidone, gelatin, colorant, titanium dioxide, beeswax, talc.
  • Side effects

    In addition contraindications should pay attention to possible side effects, which is typical of the drug:

  • Problems on the part of hematopoiesis: anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, eosinophilia, lymphoproliferative diseases.
  • From the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system: anorexia, nausea, retching, lesions of the throat, ulceration of the mouth, lesions and bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, due to the high toxic effects, Methotrexate can cause acute hepatitis, fibrosis/cirrhosis liver failure and increased activity of hepatic transaminaz.
  • CNS drug causes headache, drowsiness, dizziness, convulsions, paresis. High doses of the drug monitorname threatens a violation of cognitive function, lability of the psyche, destructive changes of the cranial sensitivity.
  • Can hurt the eyes, frequent conjunctivitis, transient blindness.
  • Depression of the cardiovascular system is expressed in the heart, reducing blood pressure, the retinal veins thrombosis, pulmonary embolism.
  • Changes of the respiratory system are rare and expressed in lung fibrosis, respiratory failure, shortness of breath, fever, symptoms of potentially dangerous burdened with interstitial pneumonia.
  • Severe nephropathy, hepatic, renal failure, cystitis ,vaginal discharge, infertility, fetal death, abortion, destruction of fetus development – all possible side effects on the genitourinary system. It is therefore a contraindication to taking the drug is pregnancy and any. However, in extremely rare cases, Methotrexate is assigned to expectant mothers, the risks are estimates only knowledgeable.
  • Side effects can touch the skin in form of eczema and musculoskeletal system in the form of arthralgia, osteoporosis. May cause tumors, allergic reactions up to anaphylactic shock, vasculitis, sepsis.

    Important! It is strictly forbidden to take the drug on their own without a doctor’s recommendation. Side effects such highly toxic remedies for violations of dosages lead to extremely negative reactions.

    Method of application and doses

    Make the drug should be between meals, approximately 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after a meal. Tablet do not chew, washed down with plenty of water. The treatment regimen determined by the treating physician. Any increase or decrease doses, every 3 months should undergo routine examination including: examination of the oral cavity, pharynx, respiratory system, the samples on the functionality of kidneys and liver. Must pass hematological blood tests for the detection of destructions from the hematopoietic system.

    The dosing regimen is not recommended to break. Instruction manual dictates the following rules:

  • For tumors of trophoblastic nature of 15-30 mg per day course in 5 days. A break between treatment to 1 or more weeks. The course is repeated up to 5 times.
  • In the complex therapy for lymphoblastic leukemia at 3.3 mg/m2. After achieving remission 2.5 mg for 14 days.
  • Lipoma non-Hodgkin’s – up to 20 mg in one go twice a week, then 7.5 mg per day course in 5 days.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis-7.5 mg once a week, taking a single or divisible into three doses with an interval. It is possible to increase the dose to achieve the best effect, but not more than 20 mg. Then the dosage is reduced, the course of treatment appointed the doctor.
  • In psoriasis, the dose is 10-25 mg per week, increase dosage gradual decline after clinical effect.
  • Athlete’s foot – up to 25 mg twice per week. Dose reduction, as well as the complete cancellation of Methotrexate depends on patient response and hematologic parameters.
  • As a rule, the achievement of remission requires breaks in reception, a significant reduction in dose or complete discontinuation of the drug. As maintenance therapy Methotrexate is rarely used because of the characteristic features of the immune system depression.

    Counterparts, and testimonials

    On the active substance and rendered the effect of analogues of Methotrexate are: Metoject, Sexat, Vero-Methotrexate.

    Patients respond to methotrexate the positive, emphasizing the high efficiency of tablets and the possibility of a course receiving a long period.

    Catherine:

    «Taking Methotrexate for more than 10 years, courses prescribed. Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and if not a cure, I would have already obezdil. Starting the pill I after 5-7 days I already feel relief and after 14 days the symptoms are: swelling subsides, pain, and no stiffness. A huge list of side effects raises suspicion, but I have seen the absent-mindedness of attention, becoming forgetful. However, use of the drug more than harm, because going to continue.»

    Vladimir:

    «With a diagnosis of sacroiliitis of the third degree, especially to choose the drug is not necessary. The doctor prescribed Methotrexate, had a drink in almost a year. Tests stabiliziruemost, this is almost normal except erythrocyte sedimentation rate – this figure fell by half against what was before the drug. Feel very well, but only after taking the pills do not want to eat and stomach ache. After complaints the doctor prescribed the injections – so much easier. Soon it will be possible to go on a small dosage, it is terrible that the pain without therapeutic doses of Methotrexate will be back, but hope for the best.»

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