Basal cell carcinoma and its symptoms on the skin

Treatment of basal cell carcinoma on the skin

The epithelium covers the entire human body, lines the internal organs. Appears the most common tissue in the body. The main feature is that it is constantly updated due to the ongoing cell division in the basal layer. This aspect in some of the paintings leads to malignant transformation. The appearance of basal cell carcinoma is caused by cell division in the basal layer of the epidermis. Another name for cancer pathology – basal cell carcinoma. Consider the causes and symptoms of malignant disease.

  • The causes of cancer
  • The first symptoms of skin cancer and early-stage carcinomas
  • Treatment

The causes of cancer

What is basal cell carcinoma? This malignant tumor that is localized to the neck, head or face. Somewhat less often in medical practice pathology observed on the abdomen, back surface, upper and lower limbs.

Neoplasm of skin «lets» metastases, however, tends to progress quickly, resulting in spreading across the skin of the person. Especially dangerous is the disease which is near the eyes, on the head or in the region of nasolabial triangle, as it is located close to the brain.

Note, this form of basal cell cancer appears as the most common pathology has a relatively favorable prognosis. In most of the paintings are diagnosed after 45-50 years of age. Timely drug correction can prevent relapsing course.

Substrate, from which over time there is the appearance of basal cell carcinoma, are some dermatological disease and tumors – moles, freckles.

The immediate cause of development of pathological process is the abnormal growth and mutation of cells in the basal layer. This process provokes a transformation in the genetic material (DNA) occurs under the influence of various provoking factors of external and internal environment.

The appearance of basal cell carcinoma due to the following reasons:

  • Genetic predisposition;
  • Permanent mechanical effect on a certain area or injury thereof;
  • Prolonged exposure of chemical and toxic components;
  • Diseases viral pathogenesis;
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation;
  • Natural changes of human skin, which are caused by age-related changes in the body;
  • Violation of the functionality of the immune system;
  • Prolonged exposure to UV rays.
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Basal carcinoma, the most common form of cancer, approximately three-quarters of all cases of skin cancer. Statistics reveal that it is mainly diagnosed men.

Degeneration of cells in the body divide much more slowly healthy, many of them in the process of dividing the die. It is for this reason tumor the tumor in 95% of the paintings are small in size. The risk of developing basal cell carcinomas is increased in people with light skin and freckles with low immune status.

The first symptoms of skin cancer and early-stage carcinomas

Depending on the appearance of clinical symptoms and course of the pathological process there are four main types of malignant neoplasms. They have certain distinctive characteristics, with something similar.

The color of the growths white with glitter, pink or red. But the colors is almost nothing to say about pathological activity of the element. The color of the tumor is conditioned by the degree and sites of enlarged blood vessels.

At the initial stage of nodule on the skin up to 2 inches. The surrounding tissue is inflamed due to compression of the surrounding tissues. Regardless of the type of tumor, you may receive the pigment. Usually it is chaotic.

Important: the stronger the modified circuit basal cell carcinoma, the more malignant is the tumor.

Clinical forms of the disease and initial symptoms:

  • Nodular form of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. This subtype is found in most of the cases. On the body first, there is a small tubercle, which has a gentle edge. The surface is shiny, it is noted mother of pearl color. Although in medicine meet and tumors, which is red in color. Subjective symptoms were absent, grows slowly, does not lead to pain.
  • The superficial form is characterized by the appearance of plaques, projecting above the surface of the skin, its size up to 4 inches. Marked flat and waxy edge of the tumor. This kind of constantly ulcerate and heal in different places, which leads to the thinning and atrophic changes of the skin. A typical localization of the breast. Most often found in members of the fairer sex. Unfortunately, this species can grow over the years and only then be noticed.
  • Scar appearance rebirth of the nodular type. The tumor surface slightly below the surrounding healthy tissues. The structure is dense, like a keloid scar. Color is gray or pink. Edges are shiny and waxy. Ulceration occurs not in the center of the pathological element, and the edges on the border with the healthy tissue, which complicates operative treatment, because it is not possible to determine the exact limits.
  • Ulcerative form appears the most dangerous of all types of basal cell carcinoma in humans, because it leads to serious defects, which are rapidly progressing and spreading. Appears ulcer on the body, which are periodically covered with scabs of brown or black shade. Edge growth is uneven, dense structure.
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    Scar type of pathology may develop as a case of primary cancer of the skin, and the relapses after the therapy. The recurrence rate reaches up to 40%, because the tumor is excessively deeply embedded in the fabric.

    The key to successful treatment is correct diagnosis. Basal cell carcinoma must be differentiated from similar diseases, as well as set its exact subtype. This will help dermatologist.

    Treatment

    The main goal of treatment of the superficial formations is the destruction and subsequent removal of tumors. In modern medicine there are several techniques that help cure cancer of the skin.

    You should know that: the most effective therapy is surgical excision and the excision of the tumor. During the procedure, the surgeon captures a little bit of healthy tissue to prevent relapsing course. The disadvantages of the method include post-operative scars and scars.

    Brief description of the methods of treatment of basal cell carcinoma:

    • Surgery for Mohs. This medical manipulation allows to remove the tiniest areas of tumor that cannot be visualized externally to prevent secondary occurrence. Pros: small rehabilitation and little trauma to healthy tissue;
    • Curettage involves scraping out pathological element with the help of a curette, is used both electrocoagulation that allows you to cauterize blood vessels, to destroy cancer cells;
    • Cryosurgery involves freezing the growth with liquid nitrogen. This option is suitable in cases when the carcinoma is small in size, is located on the surface;
    • Radiation treatment is recommended for patients when there is no possibility to apply other methods of therapy.
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    Given the slow growth of abnormal tumors, no metastasis and high rates of full recovery, the prognosis of this disease is positive in 90% of cases.

    The main preventive measures include protection of skin from UV rays, strengthen the immune system. You must regularly inspect the skin on the subject of anomalous elements, when detected in a timely manner to seek help in medical institution.

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