Atopic dermatitis and its treatment in adults

The symptoms of atopic dermatitis in adults and its treatment

Atopic dermatitis, infantile eczema and atopic dermatitis in adults is one chronic skin disorders wearing allergic in nature. In medicine the disease belongs to atopic diseases, which are accompanied not only skin manifestations, but also bronchial asthma, conjunctivitis. In exceptional cases, the dermatitis is an independent disease, in most cases accompanied by a pathology as rhinitis, hay fever, bronchial asthma, etc. For favorable prognosis of treatment first eliminate the cause.

  • Characteristics of the disease in adults
  • Classification and etiology of atopic dermatitis
  • Characteristics of the clinical picture in adults
  • Itching
  • Dry skin
  • Rash
  • Medication

Characteristics of the disease in adults

Atypical dermatitis occurs in approximately 10% of the adult population worldwide. Depending on the region of residence figures vary slightly. Most often, the pathology is diagnosed in developed countries. In the basis of pathological process is a genetic predisposition to production of specific antibodies in response to any stimuli.

Note the non-allergic form of atopic dermatitis are diagnosed more often in women than in men.

Approximately 60% of cases pathology is allergic in nature. It is noted that the anomalous process goes through three stages of development. Typically, patients in childhood had an allergic reaction as atypical and of a different nature. The disease is characterized by severe itching, scratching aggravates the clinical picture that could lead to transformation into chronic form.

The peculiarity of the disease in adults is that always diagnosed a severe form. This certainly marked the associated clinical manifestations as rhinitis, asthma, conjunctivitis, etc. in a normal adult population affected upper and lower limbs, face.

Classification and etiology of atopic dermatitis

The severity of the pathological process is determined by the frequency of relapses, the degree of damage of the skin, intensity of itching, sensitivity to treatment. Given these factors, the disease is classified into three stages:

  • In mild stage, there are minor skin lesions, there is a hardly noticeable itching. A relapse is detected several times a year, mostly in the cold season. The duration of remission was 10 months old;
  • In moderate stage there is a loss of a large area, exacerbation revealed up to 4 times per 12 months. The disease can hardly be corrected with medicines;
  • In severe marked the strongest form. Almost always, the dermatitis is acute stage. The disease tends to progress. There is severe itching, disturbed sleep. To cure this form difficult, the medicines give only temporary relief.
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The causes of atopic dermatitis in adults are the same as in young patients. The exception can be attributed to failure to observe basic hygiene rules, as a rule, for adults, the reason is irrelevant.

Why is there a chronic disease that is difficult to answer. Usually it leads to a set of negative factors, which stimulate the wrong immune response to external stimuli. Scientists agree that the etiology in most cases is due to a genetic predisposition to develop antibodies.

Predisposing factors:

  • Unfavorable ecological situation.
  • Irrational and unbalanced nutrition.
  • Severe stress, emotional stress, neuroses.
  • Chronic infectious disease.
  • The deterioration of the immune system.
  • The disturbance in the digestive and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Problems with the kidneys, excretory system, liver.
  • Parasitic diseases.
  • Note: the release hook can become hormonal imbalance, so pathology often occurs while carrying a child.

    If the mother during pregnancy were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis, there’s a strong chance that the baby will manifest the same symptoms in the future.

    Characteristics of the clinical picture in adults

    Signs of atopic dermatitis in adults have a high degree of variability depends on the form of the disease. Constant companions during remission – dry skin and redness.

    Itching

    The most constant symptom of atopic form of the disease. Its severity depends on the severity of the pathological process. If there are lichenoid eruptions, itching always strong and intense. When the rash is itching is still not leveled, as there is excessive dryness and skin irritation. Excessive itching sensations are often the cause of scratching, resulting clinical picture is compounded by a secondary infection.

    Dry skin

    Dryness and redness is localized not only on the elbows, under the knee cap and in skin folds and other areas of the body. There is tight skin on the face, neck, shoulders. This changes the appearance, flaking, lose a healthy glow.

    This symptom in atopic disease has several stages. At first there is only the tightness of the skin, especially on the face. The second – observed peeling, redness, itching. Often, there are small cracks. Due to the fact that the skin loses moisture, disturbed lipid metabolism of the epidermis, comes the third stage. It is characterized by rough and tense skin, deep cracks.

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    Rash

    Atopic dermatitis is accompanied by special symptoms and treatment in adults should be assigned on the basis of them. Rashes in the course of the disease are primary and secondary. In the first case, they are localized in the field of healthy skin, the second is the result of primary pathological changes of the elements.

    The primary symptoms of dermatitis in adults:

    • The spots are manifested by local redness, skin texture does not change. Can be subtle, or bright red. Size varies from 1 to 5 cm Are swollen and scaly;
    • Blisters sized up to 0.5 cm is Within the inflammatory exudate. In severe cases, they show the admixture of blood.

    If left untreated atopic dermatitis, or schema therapy are incorrectly assigned, the disease progresses rapidly, in consequence of which the primary elements are converted in the secondary:

  • Peel and flakes. They are represented by the cells of the epidermis. Usually occur on the elbows and in the folds of the skin. Are purulent or serous.
  • Erosive damage, cracks. Erosion replaces the blisters, due to violation of the integrity of the skin. Crack – a linear skin disruption. They occur because of lowering of elasticity and excessive dryness. Localized superficial, do not leave scar tissue.
  • Lichenification – thickening of the skin, which leads to the coarseness and surface roughness. On top of the skin can be covered with small scales. The etiology is due to pronounced inflammatory processes.
  • Hyperpigmentation – skin discoloration within the areas of primary and secondary elements.
  • When the dermatitis appears on the face then peel the eyelids develops cheilitis, eyebrows become thinner, eyelashes break off. In most cases, there is the deepening creases on the lower and upper eyelids.

    Medication

    Treatment of atopic dermatitis in adults include an extensive list of drugs for oral administration. In a situation when atopic manifestations is the consequence of atopic disease, conservative therapy is aimed at elimination of the underlying pathology of asthma, hay fever, etc.

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    For the treatment prescribed, the following groups of drugs:

    • Corticosteroids are always assigned for the treatment of dermatitis. They are recommended locally and systemically tablets for oral administration. Drugs differ in their biological activity. For example, Hydrocortisone is a weak drug, Dermovate is a strong drug;
    • Antihistamine medications relieve the severity of allergic symptoms. They block the histamine release that causes leveling of redness, swelling and reduce itching. This files most often prescribed pills Suprastin, Tavegil. If you cannot use this form of injection;
    • Immunosuppressants belonging to the class of macrolides. These drugs have an immunosuppressive effect. Representative – Tacrolimus – available in the form of capsules for internal use;
    • Drugs with membrane-stabilizing property are assigned at relapse in combination with antihistamine tablets – Ketotifen;
    • Pills soothing properties. The unbearable itching causes sleep disturbance, emotional lability, psychological imbalance. Sedative medication is required for stabilization of the emotional background (tincture of Valerian, Motherwort).

    Important: in the regimen always includes medications that normalize the functionality of the intestinal hilak Forte, Bifidumbacterin, etc./

    If the joined by secondary infection, is taking antibiotics. More often prescribe Erythromycin. When joining the fungal flora will need treatment with antifungal drugs.

    To increase the duration of remission and live a full life as an ordinary person, you must strictly adhere to all recommendations of the doctor. Neither of which the independent treatment of the question can not be. High likelihood of complications, side effects from medications, which causes long-lasting aggravation.

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