Analysis on toxoplasmosis in humans: avidity of antibodies

Immunofermentnyi analysis on toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a pathogen, which belongs to the group protozoa. Human infection occurs as a result of penetration of the cyst, a dispute of parasites. They are in the soil, the grass, on berries, vegetables. Time to identify disease helps analysis on toxoplasmosis in the laboratory. It determines not only the mere presence of Toxoplasma, but also reveals the course of the pathological process. Consider what methods of investigation help to identify toxoplasmosis in humans and what are the risks of disease during pregnancy.

  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • The main methods of diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
  • Decoding blood test for toxoplasmosis
  • Prevention of toxoplasmosis
  • Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: consequences

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

The most reliable method to detect the causative agent in the human body, this enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The full title of the study is: ELISA for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma in serum biological fluid with the assessment of the avidity to IgG.

Worth knowing: during the enzyme immunoassay by means of biochemical reactions can be detected in the blood of special proteins – immunoglobulins produced by the body to combat Toxoplasma. Their presence indicates disease.

Antibodies appeared in the blood due to the activity of parasites, conventionally divided into early and late substance – IgM and IgG, respectively. This aspect is necessarily taken into account when interpreting the results.

As an example: immunoglobulins M are produced at the beginning of the anomalous process. At 14-21 days the concentration reaches the limit of content, and after 30-60 days they are offset. Their detection indicates acute phase of disease.

IgG antibodies are produced several days later, their maximum concentration detected in one month after the onset of the disease. They don’t just disappear, persist in bodily fluids for a long period of time – most of the paintings remain forever.

What is the avidity of antibodies to toxoplasmosis? Avidity, the percentage of the ability of the immunoglobulin IgG contact with the parasites for subsequent get rid of them. The indicators take into account the avidity necessary because early in the disease they bind IgG poorly – low form of avidity and intensity of the immune response, the avidity increases.

Tests for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy you need to pass necessarily, because this disease threatens a serious disruption of fetal development. The risk of transmission to the baby during birth is approaching 98%.

The main methods of diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

Immunoassay research is not the only test for toxoplasmosis. There are other diagnostic methods that are used in modern medical practice. To be tested for toxoplasmosis in a public hospital or a private medical facility.

READ  The foot fungus treatment with the help of Mitoxana

During pregnancy the doctor prescribes the study because the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in most clinical pictures are not available, visually determine the pathology impossible, and infection of the mother is a threat for the normal development of the fetus.

Such research is done on toxoplasmosis:

  • Parasitological examination. The analysis for toxoplasmosis allows you to answer the question whether there is disease or not. This option is rarely chosen, because in practice the study did not show high results. In addition, the method does not evaluate the time of infection;
  • PCR for toxoplasmosis is a quite informative method is based on the study of biological material – the amniotic fluid, saliva, urine, sputum, etc. But often take urine or blood;
  • Intradermal test involves the introduction of the pathogen into the body. Evaluation of the response is given within 25 hours. About positive results say, if there is redness and swelling of the skin at the injection site of Toxoplasma. The disadvantage include that it is impossible to determine the phase of activity of the pathological process.

Time polymerase chain reaction in the morning. It is desirable to pass the biological material on an empty stomach is not recommended the day before to eat a lot of fatty foods. Other specific conditions of preparation no.

Important: the polymerase chain reaction can give a positive (the presence of Toxoplasma) or negative (absence of pathogens). This technique is able to detect even a negligible amount of parasites, so the detection of DNA reflects the acute phase of the disease (primary infection).

Along with the benefits of research through PCR, allocate and disadvantages. First and foremost is the relatively high cost and the higher hardware requirements, which is used in the analysis. Therefore, diagnosis using PCR in most paintings is recommended in cases when it is necessary to confirm or refute the analysis.

Decoding blood test for toxoplasmosis

Any laboratory performing blood tests for toxoplasmosis, has specific (own) parameters standards (permissible limits). They must be specified in the form of the results. If the level of antibodies is below the threshold boundaries, this result indicates the absence of disease, above reference values of Toxoplasma was found.

Interpreting the results of IFA in pregnancy:

  • Immunoglobulin lgg negative, IgM – negative. Toxoplasmosis is not found, pathology in anamnesis was missing. Women at the planning stage of conception and pregnant with as a result fall into the category of risk, so you should be tested every trimester.
  • Minus IgM, IgG – positive. There is a strong immune system, is found in about 60% of the total population. During pregnancy with these indicators a woman should consult a doctor to do a PCR test, which determines the avidity. If you do not have the DNA of the parasites on the background of high forms of avidity, it confirms that the immunity was acquired before pregnancy, respectively, treatment of toxoplasmosis is not required.
  • IgM +, IgG – negative. Diagnosed acute primary pathological process in the body. During pregnancy there is a high probability of intrauterine infection of the child. Definitely need to spend extra test – PCR of urine and blood, and ELISA repeated after 7-14 days, when the IgG should already be plus. If this is confirmed, DNA was found, it is necessary to undergo treatment.
  • IgM + and IgG +. Assumes primary infection. However, here we need to note that IgM may remain positive from 90 days to several years. So be sure to clarify the diagnosis using other techniques.
  • READ  Photo chicken pox in the mouth and on the tongue in a child: symptoms

    While the study determined avidity to Toxoplasma. If the value is equal to or less than 40% say they have acute primary infection; in variation 41-59% — the result is invalid, repeat the study after a few weeks; if more than 60% of primary infections does not threaten the carriers. It is not excluded indolent inflammatory process.

    Prevention of toxoplasmosis

    In most cases, the issue of the prevention of toxoplasmosis POPs up when the woman is in position. Preventive measures are extremely simple and accessible to all, they help to avoid serious complications.

    Note: toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious danger. Women in an interesting position it is recommended to avoid close contact with cats, especially young women. Cleaning the toilet of Pets, their feeding, etc. is inevitable things are done only with gloves, then wash hands thoroughly. This rule applies only to those pregnant women who do not have immunity against toxoplasmosis.

    Preventive measures:

    • Regularly inspect pet for parasites. There are special methods of diagnosis and therapy Pets, which will reduce the risk of human infection;
    • To eat meat products only after heat treatment. The meat should be thoroughly cooked;
    • Vegetables, fruits and berries are washed before consumption, because they could come into contact with soil, infected cysts;
    • Before conceiving it is recommended to pass research on the disease. If found a «fresh» infection, with pregnancy you need to wait 6 months.

    As prevention of considerable importance is the strengthening of the immune system. This applies not only to women during pregnancy, but all people because the immune status determines the course of toxoplasmosis.

    READ  Choosing the cream or ointment from odor and athlete's foot

    Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: consequences

    For the female body the primary infection does not pose a serious danger, the pathology in most of the paintings has a latent period, are rarely seen anxiety symptoms with deterioration of General health.

    Intrauterine infection is likely in case of primary infection with toxoplasmosis and in a situation when there was a reactivation. In other words, the pathological process was hidden, but intensified – is rare, but not excluded.

    Note, the fruit is subject to contamination at any stage of pregnancy, however, the greatest threat to development is revealed in 1 and 2 trimester.

    The severity of birth defects depends on the term:

  • From 0 to 8 weeks. The risk of infection is about 16%. There is a possibility of the death of the baby severe malformations.
  • From 8 to 18 weeks, infection occurs in 25%, provoking severe brain damage, impaired liver function, of the organs of vision.
  • From 18 to 24 weeks – risk of 60%. Toxoplasmosis leads to disruption of all internal organs, anemia, jaundice, increased liver and spleen size.
  • From 24 to 40 weeks – the likelihood of over 80%. Toxoplasmosis congenital nature in 90% of the pictures in newborns occurs without symptoms. But you see a few serious complications – violation hearing, mental retardation, epilepsy, etc..
  • If the expectant mother had been ill before pregnancy, she’s immune to toxoplasmosis. The secondary penetration of parasites in the body’s immune system reacts instantly, pathogens are killed. The probability of fetal infection is less than 0.1%.

    During pregnancy each woman is assigned the analysis on a toxoplasmosis. If the identified clinical manifestations, discovered antibodies of class IgM, then the question of further treatment or termination.

    Popular articles