ELISA HIV test 4 generation of positive norm by immunoblotting, reliability
A study of blood samples using ELISA for HIV infection is one of the earliest and most reliable methods of diagnosis. Enzyme immunoassay is one of the few studies along with PCR, which is highly likely to confirm or refute such a terrible diagnosis as HIV infection or AIDS. Since the detection of the first cases of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus in the former Soviet space, and this is 1983. The medicine that would have cured this infection and the vaccine for it, was not invented, but the process is still under active development. And yet, only early diagnosis of HIV infection allows you to keep the disease process under control.
Informational digression about HIV
The immunodeficiency virus in humans belongs to the retroviruses that cause slow progression of the disease. Penetrating into the body, the human immunodeficiency virus acts primarily in lymphoid tissue. A healthy immune system produces T-lymphocytes in order to identify newly arrived viral agent. Then give the information to the antibodies, how to learn the human immunodeficiency virus and destroy it. The process of «identification» of the HIV virus occurs by means of protein-receptor CD4. But at this stage there is something strange, that for many years can not defeat the plague of the XX century.
Cell immunity CD4 to recognize foreign substance comes in contact with the immunodeficiency virus. At this point, the immunodeficiency virus is attached to the membrane of the lymphocyte, is fused with the membrane of the receptor and introducing into the cell of the immune system capsule with its genetic information and viral specific proteins. And the cell is sent to the computation of the HIV virus, from then on she becomes infected. But everything happens, unfortunately, not a single cell, and in a very large scale. The human immune system response has «your ex», and now the infected cells, creates new antibodies. But the immunodeficiency viruses according to the previously described scheme, again and again make the capture of cells-protectors.
Thus, the human immune system falls into a vicious circle. To help the body can only hold if the infection highly active antiretroviral (HAART). As well as move completely to the healthy lifestyle and nutrition that will free more resources to immunity from unnecessary work. Scientists around the world pooled their efforts and constantly conduct research to find effective medications against HIV.
Not so long ago was made an experiment with ССR5 protein that provides innate immunity of the body some people infected with HIV. Scientists subjected the substance blood of people volunteer for gene therapy to introduce ССR5 cells, T-helper cells. All wards that led to a major decline in the number of retroviral DNA. And one patient, the immunodeficiency virus this method allowed to eliminate completely. On the basis of this experiment can as yet only speculate in a single case of successful victory over the terrible plague of the XX century.
Starting in 2016, this activity has moved significantly forward. Received a staggering efficiency results ninety percent destruction of the HIV virus with the attacking antibodies secreted by muscle tissue in the occupied bypass immunity. To do this, in the muscle tissue of experimental living beings implanted a special gene responsible for producing these killer cells to destroy HIV. But this method has not yet been applied, although it is planned in the coming years.
Especially not sense discouraged. And it is better as early as possible to identify the human immunodeficiency virus that can be done with the help of IFA, if there was a risk of infection. And in the case of confirmation of diagnosis, to maintain your immune system by HAART as long as a new drug against HIV infection will be made public.
Diagnosis of HIV infection
The ELISA method for HIV infection is aimed at the detection in a sample of human blood antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus. Once in the body, to the group of retroviruses which include HIV infection, do not immediately begin to actively capture of immune CD4 cells (T-lymphocytes). But to wait until the aggressive agents of the deadly activity in the body is not necessary. It is no secret that for any disease, and HIV infection is no exception, the sooner the therapy, the more effective the healing.
When it comes to human immunodeficiency virus, the cases of complete healing of the officially recorded was not. But this does not mean you have to give up and let the disease fester. HIV-positive people live up to 75-80 years, subject detection at the initial stage and ongoing maintenance therapy.
Immunoassay method for diagnosing HIV infection has a high accuracy of around 97-99%. But this small part of 1-3% can give false positive or false negative diagnosis of infection using ELISA. For these purposes, to definitively confirm or refute the testimony of ELISA analysis, applied analysis, called the immunoblot (IB).
What are the methods of ELISA and IB for HIV infection
Immunofermentnyi method for HIV 4th generation is not only aimed at the search and identification of pathogenic cells, but also to establish their numbers. Consequently, a single enzyme immunoassay combines qualitative and quantitative research. Method ELISA 4th generation HIV for the period of six weeks from the date of the alleged infection will show 100% of high reliability of the results.
In the basis of ELISA studies on the interaction of specific antibodies and their related antigens. Thanks to a special enzyme, and the formation of a set of «antigen-antibody». To carry out this reaction for the detection of antibodies to HIV in polistirolovoy panel with 96-hole, in which in solid form are recombinant proteins (adsorbed) place the sample of blood. Caught up in capacity with the serum antigens or antibodies to recognize the known object to form a connection to the «at-AH». To establish antibodies to immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 applies also test DS IFF for HIV AG-at.
The advantages of the method of immunoassay for HIV 4th generation:
- High reliability, more than 96%. False positives often are the cause not the analysis itself, and the wrong training or recent respiratory illness.
- The determination as to the presence and abundance of immunoglobulins.
- The ability to monitor result of therapy of HIV infection.
- The rate of receipt of HIV test results infection, which is a few hours, if conducted in the diagnostic center.
- HIV infection four immune reactivity which is significantly above the predecessors, informative in the serological window period of the virus of immune deficiency, underwent.
Immune of bloating is a screening and is assigned to identify the type of antigen. A screening study of IB is used as a validation test for HIV infection after 5-7 weeks after ELISA testing. The IB method based on the use of electrophoresis to separate antigens of the virus of immunodeficiency. The process of separation of antigens provides the opportunity to detect specific antibodies to each antigen of HIV infection.
Immunobloting used when ELISA test for HIV infection twice in a row shows false-positive or false-negative result. Suspicions may arise in the absence or conversely the presence of typical symptoms of HIV infection. Although here too there may be different variations.
Interpreting the results of IFA on HIV-infection
In the case where ELISA plus IB is confirmed by the screening is positive, no doubts, the patient in the body the virus is immunodeficiency. But if, for example, IFF HIV positive, and the immunoblot is negative, then make a conclusion about the infection of «minus», that is, the lack of it.
Only in such a situation, the patient still sent for further examination, to exclude certain immunodeficiency virus.
While enzyme immunoassay for HIV 4th generation «minus», and the positive Western blot sections, possibly in the body there is a different infection. Perhaps the man any autoimmune disease, cancer, is psoriasis of the skin or joints gives false positive results as ELISA and IB.
Another option, when the ELISA test for HIV shows the result of the «minus» and also immunoblot with a value of «minus», here we can only rejoice in the absence of virus immunodeficita. But if you have specific features inherent in HIV infection or if the person is in close contact with HIV positive patient. Then it will be also necessary to carry out additional diagnostics, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Besides questionable performance «minus» or «plus», the patient is advised to re-take the blood through 4, and preferably 6 months.
Norm and deviation in the number of T-lymphocytes in HIV infection:
- The norm of T cells from 1000 to 2900 mm.
- AIDS early from 500 to 200 µl.
- AIDS is late less than 200 µl.
The disease is easier to prevent than to treat ― it is all known wisdom. Since the distribution in a society free of morals appeared, and a large number of different sexually transmitted diseases. HIV and AIDS ranked as yet incurable diseases. The method of transmission is mainly sexually transmitted and through blood. One hundred percent to protect themselves from any disease is impossible. There are a lot of unexpected situations, even for people leading a moral and clean lifestyle. In a situation of increased danger of Contracting HIV and other dangerous infections invaluable having a diagnosis of blood.